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osteoarthritis and musculoskeletal injuries in humans often incorporate some form of aquatic exercise. Water provides an effective medium for exercise that can increase joint mobility, promote physiologically normal motor patterns, increase muscle activation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of the neck through a wide range of motion into positions that cannot be achieved during locomotion. They are used with the goals of improving athletic performance and reducing the risk of injury by activating and strengthening the muscles that move

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

that the activity patterns of various limb muscles of quadrupeds do not differ significantly between a walk and trot and vary only slightly during a gallop. The activity pattern describes the initiation and duration of muscle activation. Possible

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

padding and FL such that the activated legwear could restrict MCPJ extension while minimizing motion of the legwear relative to the limb. Figure 2 Drawing depicting a cross section through the middle portion of the third metacarpal (cannon) region of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

performed, and the resulting values for the parameters were as follows: number of hidden nodes, 2; learning rate, 0.1; momentum, 0.1; initial weight range, ± 0.3 kg; activation function (input layer), linear; activation function (hidden layer), logistic; and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

adjustable stop mechanism. Legwear in an activated state sustained loading during stance for both in-stall activities and treadmill exercises, and mechanical limitation of MCPJ extension was postulated to have decreased peak load and torque on the flexor

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

stimulation of 1b interneurons within the ventral horn of the spinal cord, which induces inhibition of the muscles that act across the affected joint. 9,10 Altered afferent articular information also decreases gamma motor neuron activation, which in turn

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of the equine spine . Equine Vet J 2004 ; 36 : 699 – 702 . 29 Keller TS Colloca CJ Fuhr AW . Validation of the force and frequency characteristics of the activator adjusting instrument: effectiveness as a mechanical impedance

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intact. The passive support structures are considered the main stabilizers of the forelimb during midstance, 27 so the lack of muscle activation was unlikely to have any clinically relevant effect on our results. Also, fetlock suspensory apparatus

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

more or less vertical, mitigating against small bilateral differences in ground reaction forces for an overall similar joint moment. Judging from the hip joint power profiles, concentric muscle activations that generate hip joint extension appear to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research