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inactivation at 95°C for 5 minutes, the reaction volume was adjusted to 100 μL with nuclease-free water. The cDNA was analyzed immediately or stored at −20°C until use. Real-time PCR systems for equine GAPDH, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TGF

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

molecular markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, PCT, and TGF-β) in the blood of healthy and sick foals by use of realtime PCR assays. Materials and Methods Case selection —Forty-nine client-owned foals evaluated at the VMTH at the University of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

before in horses with EIPH, information exists on increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of horses with recurrent airway obstruction 8 ; increased mucosal IL-4 and IL-10 expression associated with

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, development of Th-17 cells is inhibited by IFN-γ or IL-4. 11 The IL-17 produced by Th-17 cells enhances neutrophil influx to mucosal surfaces by increasing the production of chemokines such as CXCL1, CXCL2, IL-8, granulocyte colony–stimulating factor, and TNF-α

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

1991 ; 266 : 10608 – 10615 . 10.1016/S0021-9258(18)99267-7 35. Kamitani S Yamauchi Y Kawasaki S , et al. Simultaneous stimulation with TGF-β1 and TNF-α induces epithelial mesenchymal transition in bronchial epithelial cells . Int Arch

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research