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,11,12,13 Nuclear factor-κβ has been identified as a potential promoter of TNF-α and nitric oxide synthase transcription. 10,11 The NF-κβ pathway may also be activated via the MAPK pathways. Inhibition of both MAPK-p38 and MAPK ERK has been reported to reduce NF

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

is currently used prophylactically in foals. The effects of opsonization on respiratory burst activity in neutrophils and macrophages, the release of TNF-α from macrophages, and the degree of bacterial viability within macrophages were measured. We

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

production. Furthermore, addition of anti–IL-10 antibody increases expression of TNF-α and IL-12 mRNA. Neutralization of IL-10 also induces increased interferon-γ expression by peripheral mononuclear blood cells exposed to Mptb purified protein derivative. 9

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the proinflammatory response, several of the first-responder cytokines (IL-1, 4, and 6; TNF-α; and INF-γ 9 ) have a purely catabolic function, promoting a physiologic state of readiness to retrieve needed energy substrates from storage depots such as

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

were determined through assessment of serum concentrations of cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-10) and acute-phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and fibrinogen) via ELISA and colorimetric methods. Assessment of pathological

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research