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tissue, and this leads to insulin resistance 3 and vascular endothelial dysfunction. 4 Obese horses, like obese humans, appear to be in a low-grade systemic inflammatory state. 5,6 Increased IL-1 and TNF-α expression has been detected in the blood of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

solution, and the other catheter was used for collection of blood samples for a CBC and measurement of glucose, insulin, and TNF-α plasma concentrations. The LPS was administered in the catheter not used for blood sample collection. Insulin preparation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and neuropeptides or interaction with the immune system through cytokines, paracrine factors derived from endothelial cells, and adipocyte-derived adipokines). 2 The main cytokines released after major abdominal surgery in humans are IL-1, TNF-α, and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.05.001 41. Ryan VH German AJ Wood IS , et al. Adipokine expression and secretion by canine adipocytes: stimulation of inflammatory adipokine production by LPS and TNFα . Pflugers Arch 2010 ; 460 : 603 – 616 . 10.1007/s00424-010-0845-x 42

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

quantitation of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and B-Gus gene expression were collected at before (–30 minutes; baseline) and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after infusion of LPS or saline solution into whole blood RNA collection tubes. Tubes were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research