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osteoarthritic process, induces the production of ROS in several cell types. 6–11 Activation with IL-1β or TNF-α increases the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase, which regulates the production of nitric oxide, by chondrocytes in vitro. 9 Excessive

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

humans in which cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and TGF-β) have been evaluated in an effort to categorize and quantify the degree of joint inflammation and to provide a prognosis. The interactions of these cytokines are integrally involved in acute

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

osteoarthritic joints include excess production of proinflammatory cytokines (particularly IL-1β and TNF-α) and PGE 2 as well as upregulation of the expression of degradative enzymes. 6–12 Prostaglandin E 2 is a proinflammatory lipid mediator that is locally

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

addition of conditioned medium. The conditioned medium contained either recombinant human IL-1β f (50 ng/mL), recombinant equine TNF-α f (50 ng/mL), recombinant equine IL-6 f (50 ng/mL), or a combination of these 3 cytokines, each at a concentration of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to block mediators of degenerative processes is of great clinical relevance. There is evidence indicating that IL-1β and TNF-α are the most important proinflammatory cytokines in joint diseases. 1 Interleukin-1β and TNF-α can stimulate their own

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-inflammatory cytokines were not as effective at inhibiting the production of matrix metallopeptidase-13 from chondrocytes as multiple recombinant anti-inflammatory cytokines (targeting IL-1 and TNFα). Specifically, the simultaneous analysis of a cytokine and its binding

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

receptor antagonist protein, i PGE2, j matrix metalloproteinase 13, i IL-6, k serum amyloid A, h TNF-α i , interferon-γ, HA, l GAGs, m and transforming growth factor-β3. k Cytologic evaluations were performed with a hematology analyzer

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Stem Cells 2011 ; 29 : 1537 – 1548 . 19. Woodell-May J Matuska A Oyster M , et al. Autologous protein solution inhibits MMP-13 production by IL-1β and TNFα-stimulated human articular chondrocytes . J Orthop Res 2011 ; 29 : 1320

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

improves biosynthesis of human zonal chondrocytes from osteoarthritis patients . Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2012 ; 20 : 906 – 915 . 10.1016/j.joca.2012.04.019 38. Hogrefe C Joos H Maheswaran V , et al. Single impact cartilage trauma and TNF-α

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research