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Abstract

Objective

To examine systemic immunity in kittens, including transfer of maternal immunoglobulins from the queen to kittens, and subsequent decay of passively obtained immunoglobulins.

Animals

6 healthy queens and their 46 kittens.

Procedure

Immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in serum, colostrum, and milk of queens and in their kittens' sera. Decay rate constants and half-lives of maternally derived immunoglobulins were determined. To determine intestinal absorption, foreign IgG was given to kittens at 6- to 8-hour intervals after birth, and bovine IgM was given to kittens at birth.

Results

Immunoglobulin concentrations of milk and colostrum did not differ significantly after removal of milk fat. Mean IgG concentration was higher in colostrum/milk, whereas mean IgA and IgM concentrations were lower than those in the queens' serum. No IgG or IgA was detected in any of the precolostral serum samples obtained from kittens. Small amounts of IgM were present in the sera from 5 kittens at birth. Transferred IgG and IgA decreased rapidly with half-lives of 4.4 ± 3.57 and 1.93 ± 1.94 days, respectively. Serum IgM concentration increased irregularly during the first week of life, followed by a steady increase. Foreign IgG given up to 12 hours after birth was detected in kittens' serum, whereas IgG given at or after 16 hours was not found in any kitten's serum.

Conclusions

Milk and colostral immunoglobulin concentrations did not differ significantly. The half-lives of maternally derived IgG and IgA in kittens were shorter than those reported in dogs. IgG given at or after 16 hours of life was not absorbed by neonatal kittens.

Clinical Relevance

Queen's milk obtained anytime during lactation may be used as a replacement for colostrum as a source of antibodies for neonatal kittens. Kittens at risk for neonatal isoerythrolysis must only be removed from the queens during the first day of life. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1653–1658)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Ten healthy first- and second-lactation Holstein cows were observed from 1 week before to 1 week after calving and at postpartum day 30 to determine polymorphonuclear neutrophil (pmn) functional variation and immunoglobulin binding profiles. Blood and mammary pmn were obtained 3 times weekly and within 24 hours of calving. Functional traits measured included phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and in vitro chemotaxis through micropore filters in a Boyden chamber. Additionally, pmn were evaluated for endogenous binding of IgG1, IgG2, IgA, and IgM before and after in vitro chemotaxis. Exogenous binding of the same isotypes was determined after incubation in pooled colostrum, purified immunoglobulin, and pooled sera. Phagocytosis results indicated a significant and transient increase in percentage of milk pmn with associated, rather than phagocytosed, bacteria for 1 week after calving. Blood pmn phagocytosis was not significantly different during this period. Though total chemotaxis was essentially unchanged, the percentage of pmn that were unable to complete migration increased substantially on the day of calving, an effect that disappeared by postpartum day 4. A significant (P < 0.01) positive correlation (r = 0.29) between percentage of pmn migrating completely through the micropore filter and percentage of blood pmn with associated bacteria was observed. Changes were not observed in endogenous immunoglobulin binding, with the exception of a peak in relative fluorescence intensity for IgG1 on the day of calving; this disappeared within 2 days after calving. Correlations between relative intensities of IgG2 and IgM, and percentage of mammary neutrophils phagocytosing were 0.37 and 0.70. Exogenous binding of antibody to blood neutrophils before chemotaxis was generally accomplished most effectively by pooled colostrum, whereas use of pooled sera markedly reduced binding and percentage and intensity of IgM in all cases. Binding of all isotypes was slightly higher before than after calving. Incubation of blood neutrophils in isotypes G1, G2, A, and M after chemotaxis yielded lower immunoglobulin binding among all isotypes, particularly IgM. Fluctuations in neutrophil function were observed immediately around parturition, and these changes correlated strongly with endogenous immunoglobulin-binding profiles.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The temporal response of blood and serum proteins to chronic plasmapheresis was determined in 8 horses used in a commercial antibody enterprise. Plasmapheresis of between 4 and 11 L induced significant decreases in total protein, albumin, and IgG values. With the exception of a high hematocrit value for the first postplasmapheresis blood sample, there were no changes in erythrocyte or leukocyte measurements, and no changes in the proportions of serum protein in an electrophoretic profile. Regression equations generated for recovery of proteins after plasmapheresis indicated a return to preplasmapheresis values of total protein and albumin at approximately 1 month. Complications of repeated plasmapheresis were not detected when plasma extractions were done between 7 and 19 times at 30-day intervals.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To test efficacy of murine monoclonal, rabbit polyclonal recombinant equine or human tumor necrosis factor-α (rETNF or rHTNF, respectively) antibodies to inhibit native equine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity.

Animals

8 and 18 healthy adult horses for parts 1 and 2 of the study, respectively.

Procedures

In part 1, supernates from endotoxin-activated peritoneal macrophages were incubated with various dilutions of each rETNF antibody and subsequently tested for TNF activity. Serum was also obtained from a horse 1 hour after infusion with 20 ng of endotoxin/kg of body weight and was incubated with various dilutions of rabbit polyclonal rHTNF antibody. In part 2, 20 ng of endotoxin/kg was infused in horses during a 30-minute period. Fifteen minutes after the endotoxin infusion was initiated, 1 of 3 preparations was infused: 0.1 mg of rabbit polyclonal rHTNF antibody/kg, 0.1 mg of human IgG/kg, or 500 ml of 5% dextrose. Clinical and hematologic data were collected for 24 hours.

Results

Compared with the monoclonal antibody, the rabbit polyclonal rETNF antibody was more effective in inhibiting TNF activity. The 50% effective doses of the murine monoclonal rETNF, rabbit polyclonal rETNF, and rabbit rHTNF antibodies were 1.8, 0.8, and 0.6 μg of antibody/ml, respectively. In part 2, endotoxin infusion resulted in significant alternations in all variables; however, differences among treatment groups were not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Although murine monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal rETNF or rHTNF antibodies are capable of inhibiting native equine TNF activity in vitro, when given after initiation of endotoxemia, administration of 0.1 mg of rabbit polyclonal rHTNF/kg does not alter the response to infusion of endotoxin. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:792-797)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

aliquot from each sample with a 0.1% saponin solution at 4°C for 10 minutes to make the cell membranes permeable. This was followed by incubation with FITC-conjugated monoclonal mouse anti-human cytokeratin IgG1 f (1:30 dilution) at 4°C for 1 hour. Anti

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

(median, 16.5 hours). All foals stood and suckled within 2 hours after birth. Foals were deemed clinically healthy on the basis of results of a physical examination, CBC, and serum biochemical analysis. In addition, all foals had a serum IgG concentration

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

peroxidase–conjugated anti-mouse IgG e followed by an enhanced chemiluminescence substrate f according to the manufacturer's protocol. Dogs Ten healthy female Beagles g were used in the study. The mean ± SEM body weight and age of the dogs were 10

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

peroxidase conjugated anti-mouse IgG. e SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis —Samples of kidney tissues from all groups of dogs were pooled. Samples of prostate tissue from all male dogs were pooled. Samples of testis tissues from all male intact dogs were

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

staining of the mouse tissues at the 1:200 dilution. Rabbit IgG at a dilution of 1:200 in 2% normal goat serum was used as an isotype control specimen, and BALB/c mouse tissues were used as positive control specimens. After incubation, the slides were

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, Colo. g. Wescor 4420 colloid osmometer, Wescor Inc, Logan, Utah. h. Alkaline phosphatase AffiniPure rabbit anti-dog IgG, Jackson ImmunoResearch, West Grove, Pa. i. Phosphatase substrate S0942, Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co, St Louis, Mo. j

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research