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SUMMARY

Reference intervals are reported for feline csf biochemical and serologic variables, IgG concentration, and electrophoretic fractionation, derived from 58 clinically normal adult cats that did not have histologic lesions of the cns. There was no apparent effect of age on any variable. The csf total protein concentration was significantly (P = 0.012) greater in males than in females, but all other variables were unaffected by gender. The only variable that had a statistically significant correlation with its corresponding blood concentration was IgG. Blood contamination of thecsf affected the following csf variables: total protein concentration, activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, IgG ratio, and γ-globulin percentage. The reference intervals proposed for feline csf were derived from 33 cats with csf rbc count < 31 cells/μl. Reference limits for csf with 31 to 1,700 rbc/μl also are reported.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Lambs are born with negligible serum IgG concentrations, so neonatal lambs depend on the passive transfer of maternal IgG in colostrum to provide humoral immunity during the neonatal period. 1–6 Failure of the neonatal lambs to obtain and absorb

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

detect inflammatory processes and responses to infection. 19 Infection is often reflected as a decrease in the A/G ratio attributable to increases in concentrations of globulins, including the γ-globulin fraction that contains IgG. An example of a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

mouse anti-human TPO antibodies, c,d a polyclonal rabbit anti-human TPO antibody, e a monoclonal rabbit anti-human Tg aAb, f and a polyclonal rabbit anti-human Tg aAb. 7 Alkaline phosphatase–conjugated rabbit anti-dog IgG, h alkaline phosphatase

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Paired csf and serum samples were obtained from 109 rhesus macaques aged 1 to 18 years. The csf and serum IgG and albumin concentrations were determined, using radial immunodiffusion; csf total protein and glucose were determined, using colorimetric methods; and Na, K, and Cl concentrations were determined, using ion-specific electrodes. The csf protein values were lower than those reported for non-human primates, and this finding was confirmed by results of agar gel electrophoresis. Animal age and sex had no significant effects on csf composition, but serum IgG concentration increased with age. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, and IgG were greater, and concentrations of glucose and potassium were lower in csf obtained from the lumbar rather than the cisternal site. Composition of csf was not significantly altered by contamination with blood at values up to 10,000 RBC/μl. The csf albumin quotient, IgG quotient, and IgG index were determined and differed markedly from values reported for human beings, indicating that the properties and specificity of the blood-brain barrier may be species-specific.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Immunoturbidimetric determination of serum IgG concentration in foals was compared with the reference methods of single radial immunodiffusion and serum protein electrophoresis. High positive correlations were discovered when the technique was compared with either of these reference methods. The zinc sulfate turbidity test for serum IgG estimation was also evaluated. Although a positive correlation was discovered when the latter method was compared with reference methods, it was not as strong as the correlation between reference methods and the immunoturbidimetric method.

The immunoturbidimetric method used in this study is specific and precise for equine serum IgG determination. It is rapid and, thus, is advantageous when timely evaluation of critically ill foals is necessary. The technique should be adaptable to various spectrophotometers and microcomputers for widespread application in veterinary medicine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

In an effort to characterize the activity of serum γ-glutamyltransferase (ggt) in newborn calves before and after suckling and to explore the usefulness of serum ggt as an indicator of failure of passive transfer in calves, blood samples were collected from the first calves of 48 cows at the time of birth and at 1 day of age. Serum was harvested, and concentrations of IgG and protein and activity of ggt were determined. Morbidity and mortality events were monitored from birth to weaning. Calves suckling colostrum had 10 and 1.3 times greater serum concentrations of IgG and protein, respectively, and a 26 times greater serum activity of ggt, compared with concentrations at birth. Increases in ggt activity and protein concentration were correlated to increases in IgG concentration. Calves classified as having failure of passive transfer (< 800 mg of IgG/dl) had a 9.5 times greater risk of becoming sick prior to weaning, compared with calves determined to have partial failure of passive transfer and clinically normal calves (P= 0.0004). The sensitivity and specificity of a cutoff value of 200 IU of ggt/L of serum for diagnosing failure of passive transfer were 80 and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of a cutoff value of 4.2 g of protein/dl of serum for diagnosing failure of passive transfer were 80 and 100%, respectively. The Kappa values for diagnosis of failure of passive transfer, using serum concentrations of IgG vs activity of ggt, IgG vs protein, and ggt vs protein, were 0.72, 0.86, and 0.79, respectively. The value of using ggt activities for diagnosis of hepatic lesions is limited during at least the first week of life in calves that consume adequate amounts of colostrum. The most cost-effective and rapid indicator of passive immune status in this study was determination of serum total protein. Serum activity of ggt also gave reliable indications of passive immune status. Procedures used to determine these values were less expensive and gave results sooner than single radial immunodiffusion for IgG.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Flow cytometric and conventional fluorescence microscopic methods were compared to detect heterologous (rabbit) neutrophil antibody bound to equine neutrophils. Unfixed and paraformaldehyde-fixed neutrophils were treated with normal rabbit serum or various dilutions of an antineutrophil serum. The cells were then reacted with fluorescein conjugates of goat anti-rabbit IgG, staphylococcal protein A, and streptococcal protein G. Antibody binding was evaluated by use of fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Unfixed neutrophils treated with normal rabbit serum did not fluoresce, whereas many of the fixed neutrophils had distinct cytoplasmic and some membranous (nonspecific) fluorescence. Unfixed cells treated with the antiserum had localized areas (capping) of intense membrane fluorescence, whereas fixed cells had bright uniform membranous fluorescence. The intensity of specific fluorescence varied with the antiserum dilution and the conjugate. On flow cytometry, over 80% of unfixed cells treated with antiserum dilutions up to 1:1,024, 1:2,048, and 1:256 fluoresced, respectively, with anti-IgG, protein-G, and protein-A conjugates. Fixed cells generally had similar percentages of fluorescent cells, but at a higher (1-step) antiserum dilution. It was concluded that flow cytometry is more sensitive than conventional fluorescence microscopy to detect antibodies associated with equine neutrophils.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Observations were made on development of diarrhea in special - fed calves (n = 460) on 8 commercial facilities during 2 successive 16-week production cycles at weeks 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16. A total of 23% were affected, with peak number of calves with diarrhea observed at week 0. Suspected enteropathogens were identified in 86 % of these calves, most commonly cryptosporidia, coronavirus, and rotavirus. Identified potential zoonotic pathogens included Giardia and Salmonella spp and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from 6 calves that had repeated bouts of illness. Only 22% of calves entering the veal facilities had adequate transfer of passive immunity. At week 0, serum IgG concentration in calves that subsequently died or had diarrhea was lower (P < 0.001) than that in healthy calves. All calves that died (n = 6) during the first 4 weeks of production had complete failure of transfer of passive immunity.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Concentrations of serum and vitreous humor constituents at time of death, and concentrations of vitreous humor constituents at time of death and at 7 postmortem intervals were compared in 70 domestic, female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Urea nitrogen concentration was significantly (P = 0.0094) different, but was linearly correlated in serum and vitreous humor at time of death and at the 4- and 8-hour postmortem intervals. Concentrations of γ-glutamyltransferase were not significantly different in serum and vitreous humor at time of death, nor were concentrations significantly different in vitreous humor at time of death and at the 4-hour postmortem interval. The vitreous humor concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, cortisol, and IgG were neither similar to nor predictive of serum constituents. Vitreous humor can be used as a source for estimates of serum urea nitrogen and γ-glutamyltransferase up to 8 and 4 hours after death, respectively.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research