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(arrowhead), which are characteristic of squamous cell carcinoma. H&E stain; bar in main image and inset panel = 100 and 10 μm, respectively. Morphologic Diagnosis Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis with multifocal metastasis to the regional

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Eighty-seven cats with histologically confirmed malignant tumors were used in a prospective study to determine the toxicity of mitoxantrone, a dihydroxyquinone derivative of anthracene, which was administered at 21-day intervals at dosages ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 mg/m2 of body surface, iv. Eleven of these cats were treated concurrently with radiation but were evaluated separately. Each cat was evaluated for signs of toxicosis for 3 weeks after each dose was administered or until the cat developed progressive disease, or until the cat's quality of life diminished to an unacceptable level as determined by the owner or attending veterinarian. Although the primary purpose of this study was to determine a clinically useful dosage and to characterize the toxicoses associated with mitoxantrone administration, each cat was monitored for response to treatment. Forty-nine cats had been refractory to 1 or more treatment modalities prior to inclusion in this study.

The most common signs of toxicosis after treatment with mitoxantrone were vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, lethargy, sepsis secondary to myelosuppression, and seizures. Two cats died of complications that may have been attributed to mitoxantrone: 1 of cardiomyopathy and the other of pulmonary edema of an undetermined cause. Older cats were more likely to develop signs of toxicosis after the third or fourth mitoxantrone treatment than younger cats (P ≤ 0.05). Cats with signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval after administration of the first dose of mitoxantrone were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more likely to develop signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval between the second and third doses of mitoxantrone. Similarly, cats that became toxic during the 21-day interval between the second and third doses were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more likely to become toxic during the 21-day interval between the third and fourth doses. Controlling for age, breed, and dose of mitoxantrone, cats that became toxic after the first treatment were 2.4 times more likely to have poor performance status than the non toxic cats. Tumor-bearing cats had some degree of myelosuppression 7 days after they were given mitoxantrone at 6.5 mg/m2, iv (median neutrophil count, 2,440 cells/μl; range, 1,595 to 6,300 cells/μl).

Complete or partial remission (> 50% reduction volume reduction) was obtained in 18.4% (14/76) of cats given mitoxantrone alone. Remission was recorded in 17.6% (9/51) of cats with carcinoma, 11.8% (2/17) of the cats with lymphoma, and 37.5% (3/8) of the cats with sarcoma.

Because the cats with squamous cell carcinoma had a poor response to mitoxantrone, an additional 11 cats with squamous cell carcinoma were treated concurrently with radiation (44 to 65 Gy, 10 to 15 fractions) over a 3-week period beginning at the time the first dose of mitoxantrone (2.5 to 6 mg/m2) was given. None of these 11 cats had any signs of toxicosis attributable to mitoxantrone chemotherapy. Eight cats had a complete remission (median, 170 days; range, 28 to 485 days), and 1 had a partial remission that lasted 60 days.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate subjective and computerized methods of evaluation of color Doppler (CD) and power Doppler (PD) ultrasonographic images (obtained before and after administration of contrast medium) for quantitative assessment of vascularity and perfusion of various naturally occurring tumors in dogs.

Sample Population—34 tumors in 34 dogs.

Procedure—Tumors in dogs were examined via CD and PD ultrasonography before and after IV injection of a microbubble contrast agent (pre- and postcontrast examinations, respectively). Images were digitized for subjective assessment of vessel density and vascular pattern and computer-aided assessment of parameters of vascularity (fractional area [FA]) and perfusion (color-weighted FA [CWFA] and mean color level).

Results—With both analysis methods, more vessels were identified in precontrast PD ultrasonographic images than in precontrast CD ultrasonographic images. Moreover, compared with values for precontrast PD ultrasonography, FA, CWFA, and mean color level were higher for postcontrast PD ultrasonography. In postcontrast images, there was a significant association between vessel densities determined through subjective and computerized assessments. Although sample size was small, vascularity of squamous cell carcinomas was significantly greater than that of other tumor types. Ten of the 19 soft tissue sarcomas had low vessel density with minor contrast enhancement. With increasing gross tumor volume, FA and CWFA decreased for all Doppler ultrasonographic methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Higher values of the ultrasonographic parameters representing vascularity and perfusion of tumors in dogs were determined via PD ultrasonography after administration of contrast medium than via PD or CD ultrasonography without administration of contrast medium. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:21–29)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Between 1988 and 1991, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection status was evaluated in 1,160 cats examined at an oncology referral and general practice in Los Angeles, California. Twenty-nine (2.5%) cats were fiv positive. Neoplasia was present in 18 of the 29 (62%) cats. Sampling for neoplasia was intentionally biased in the oncology referral group. However, 33% (6/18) of fiv-infected cats with neoplasia originated from the general practice. Three neoplastic processes were observed; myeloproliferative disease (mpd; 5/18), lymphoma (lsa; 5/18), and squamous cell carcinoma (scc; 7/18). One cat had lsa and scc.

Extranodal sites of lsa were common (66%) in fiv-infected cats. Sites of lsa were submandibular and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, periorbital area, and diffuse (heart, pancreas, bladder). Sites of scc were sublingual (n = 2), nasal planum (n = 3), nasal planum and eyelids (n = 1), and mandible (n = 2). Feline leukemia virus co-infection was observed in 17% (5/29) of fiv-infected cats. The fiv-infected cats with mpd were young (range, 8 months to 13 years; median, 4 years) and had short survival duration (2, 6, 21, 134, 249 days) even in response to aggressive treatment. The fiv-infected cats with lsa were older (median age, 8 years; range, 4 to 14 years) and survived 60 days if untreated. Cats administered chemotherapy survived 39, 45, 217, and 243 days; the latter 2 cats had partial remission of 2 months' duration. Older fiv-infected cats had scc (median age, 12 years; remission range, 7 to 16 years) because of more frequent association of both diseases in older cats with outdoor environment.

Lymphocytic-plasmacytic lymphadenopathy was seen in 10 necropsied fiv-infected cats (4 without neoplasia, 3 with lsa, 1 with scc, and 2 with mpd). Lymphadenopathy associated with fiv may develop in one lymph node, and lymphoma may develop in another lymph node. Clinically, fiv-induced lymphadenopathy may be confused with progressive lymphoma.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine quality and duration of progression-free survival (PFS) time in dogs with malignant oral tumors after definitive megavoltage irradiation, to analyze prognostic factors for PFS time and patterns of failure, and to analyze the influence of tumor recurrence and development of metastasis on survival.

Design

Prospective clinical trial.

Animals

105 dogs with squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, or malignant melanoma of the oral cavity without evidence of metastasis.

Procedure

Dogs were treated with 48 Gy over 4 weeks on an alternate-day schedule of 4 Gy/fraction. Multivariate analysis was done by use of Cox's regression model to determine significant prognostic factors and by use of a competing risk model to determine the differential effects of prognostic factors on type of, and time to, failure. In 8% of the dogs, severe acute radiation reactions in the final week of treatment resulted in treatment discontinuation. In 7.6% of the dogs, chronic radiation reactions, including bone necrosis and fistula formation, developed.

Results

Prognostic factors that independently affected PFS time were histologic type and tumor T stage. Histologic type significantly influenced pattern of failure, but not time to failure, whereas clinical stage significantly influenced time to failure, but not type of failure.

Clinical Implications

Irradiation was a safe and effective treatment of malignant oral tumors. Because the local efficacy of radiation was influenced only by tumor size, early treatment of oral tumors should improve the prognosis. In dogs without tumor recurrence, systemic metastases, rather than regional metastases, limited long-term survival after radiation therapy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:778–784

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

underlying the conjunctival surfaces by modest numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The conjunctival mucosa was intact. Morphologic Diagnosis and Case Summary Morphologic diagnosis: invasive primary corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors and

spicules of mature mineralized bone or cementum surrounded by inflammation and thick, undulating fronds of presumed neoplastic epithelial cells. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. Recommendations to the owner included

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

papillary exophytic projections of hyperplastic epithelium with hyperkeratosis. H&E stain; bar = 100 µm. D—Photo­micrograph of a section of the large invasive mass reveals a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with keratin pearl formation (asterisks

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

cell carcinoma was considered most likely because it is the most common neoplasm affecting ocular and adnexal sites in horses. 1 Ocular squamous cell carcinomas usually involve exophthalmos, although enophthalmos, third eyelid prolapse, and progressive

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

aggressive squamous cell carcinoma with secondary bone lysis and bone reactivity. Both cell populations had moderate to marked atypia, although neutrophilic inflammation, which typically accompanies squamous cell carcinomas, was not prominent. Regardless of

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association