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Information about reptile analgesia has advanced substantially during the past 10 years, and veterinarians who work with reptiles should strive to ameliorate pain whenever possible. 1–4 Reptiles have the requisite neuroanatomic structures and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Leopard geckos ( Eublepharis macularius ) are reptiles belonging to the family Eublepharidae. Leopard geckos are distinguished from other geckos by the presence of moveable eyelids and the absence of a spectacle. This nocturnal insectivorous

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

comminuted rostral mandibular fracture was successful in the pet bearded dragon of the present report. Orthopedic injuries in reptiles are commonly encountered in clinical practice, with most cases resulting from an underlying systemic calcium deficiency

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Reptiles respond to nociceptive stimuli, and analgesics, including opioids and NSAIDs, have frequently been recommended for the alleviation of pain in reptiles. 1–4 However, there is a lack of published information, particularly pharmacokinetic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

inhalant anesthetics on snakes, no studies on venomous species, and only a few studies 2,11–14 that have evaluated the effectiveness of these anesthetics in reptiles. In a survey provided to the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians, the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

) osteopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder of reptiles, but the definitive underlying etiology has not been determined. 2 Possible causes include trauma, infectious agents, neoplasia, nutritional deficiencies, autoimmune conditions, and degenerative or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Ventilation in reptiles is driven by blood O 2 concentration rather than by CO 2 concentration, wherein hypoxia serves as a stimulus for ventilation. 1 Thus, high oxygen-tension environments may decrease spontaneous ventilation. 1 Historically

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Veterinarians seek to minimize pain in all vertebrate species under their care. However, there is limited knowledge of pain perception and control in nonmammalian vertebrates. 1,2 For reptiles in particular, there are several challenges to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

A ccording to the most recent survey conducted by the AVMA, 3.7 million households across the United States have at least 1 companion reptile; this represents a 23.3% increase from 3.0 million households owning reptiles as pets in 2012. 1 A rapid

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Although several overviews of ultrasonography in reptiles have been published, 1–4 thorough descriptions of normal ultrasonographic anatomy are lacking for many reptile species, including the green iguana ( Iguana iguana ). Green iguanas are

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association