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antinociceptive effects against thermal stimuli in conscious parrots, and such drugs are the opioids of choice for psittacines. Results of another study 5 indicate fentanyl (a μ-receptor agonist) has antinociceptive effects in white cockatoos ( Cacatua alba ) at

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cranially. The craniofacial joint of parrots, a true joint between the upper beak and the brain case, allows even greater mobility of the upper beak. 3 Psittacines in particular have a mobile craniofacial joint. The quadrate bone is crucial in allowing this

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

inflammation at multiple sites of injury. Cerclage wires have been used to stabilize beak fractures in psittacine birds, with most reports focusing on lower beak fractures, without reported soft tissue complications. 18 For the bird of this report, differences

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

mice, 8 koi, 9 psittacines, 10 moon jellyfish, 11 American lobsters, 12 and giant cockroaches. 13 Lethal administration of KCl after anesthesia is recommended by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for euthanasia of stranded

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

C aptive psittacine birds are predisposed to lipid disorders, which include atherosclerosis, hepatic lipidosis, xanthomas, and obesity, with atherosclerosis being one of their most common lipid disorders. Similar to humans, increased plasma

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. 2 Infestations with Knemidocoptes mutans or Knemidocoptes gallinae develop in poultry, whereas Knemidocoptes pilae affects psittacines. 13 Knemidocoptes jamaicensis infestation develops in wild passerines but not in gallinaceous or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

suspected diagnosis in vivo. However, although baseline data on the degree of suppression achieved by various doses of dexamethasone exist for pigeons, 10 no published data exist for psittacines. We also considered advanced imaging modalities in the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

opioids for pain management in psittacines has been investigated, and considerable interspecies variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of those drugs has been identified. 3 Opioids are a diverse group of drugs that are widely used for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

currently considered the analgesic drug of choice for acute and chronic pain management in birds. 7,11,15 However, an accepted dose of butorphanol tartrate (2 to 4 mg/kg) in psittacine birds has a short plasma half-life and requires redosing every 2 to 4

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

from psittacines to other avian species should be done with extreme caution. However, it must also be considered that the circulating pimobendan concentrations for 1 hawk may not be representative, and an individual patient anomaly or other factors (eg

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association