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perform an exploratory laparotomy for surgical ligation of the cranial aspect of the vagina just caudal to the communication so that urine would exit through the urethra rather than the vagina. The ventral aspect of the abdomen was clipped of fur and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

biopsy samples could be used as an indicator of longterm outcome in dogs that undergo surgical correction of a congenital PSS. Materials and Methods Case selection criteria —Medical records of all dogs that underwent exploratory laparotomy for a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

evaluation) that were undergoing emergency exploratory laparotomy and to assess survival rates of horses that received each treatment. Our hypotheses were that horses receiving hypertonic saline solution would have greater reductions in PCV and TP

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

met the previously described inclusion criteria. The remaining 876 patients that were excluded had not undergone a procedure that involved either a clean or clean-contaminated laparotomy or thoracotomy. Median age of patients was 48 months (range, 1 to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

patients, antegrade ureteropyelography was performed during stent placement. All ureters were enlarged, dilated, and tortuous. In 11 of the 12 patients, percutaneous antegrade access was accomplished. One patient required access via a laparotomy because the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

via colpotomy, celiotomy, or laparotomy surgical approaches. Serious complications have been reported with open approaches and include exsanguination, shock, adhesion formation, abdominal pain, peritonitis, dehiscence, and evisceration. 5

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.6 mg/dL); UPC (nonproteinuric [< 0.2], borderline [0.2 to 0.5], proteinuric [> 0.5 to 3.5], or nephrotic-range proteinuric [> 3.5]); method of core specimen collection (laparotomy, ultrasound-guided approach, or laparoscopic approach); biopsy device

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

this initial work-up. The horse was hospitalized and started on IV fluid therapy. Due to persistent pain and colic signs, it was elected to carry out an exploratory laparotomy within 3 hours of presentation. A second 14G 5.25-inch IV catheter was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the pyloric canal, and presence of 8 worms free within the abdominal cavity. Omental adhesions were removed, and the stomach and small intestine were isolated by use of moistened laparotomy sponges. Consideration was given to resection and performance

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

anesthesia were as described for horse 1. A ventral midline laparotomy was performed, the cecum was exteriorized, and the ileocecal fold was followed deep into the abdomen to reach the ileum. The ileum and a portion of the jejunum were entrapped in the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association