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indicated that interobserver variability can affect postoperative pain scores. In the study, cats were treated with bupivacaine, meloxicam, or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and 2 observers—one experienced and the other inexperienced—assigned scores for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

treatment increased the cat's HR to 158 beats/min. An epidural injection of morphine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg) and 0.5% bupivacaine (1 mg/kg) was administered at the level of the lumbosacral junction with the cat in sternal recumbency. Fifteen minutes after

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

opioid, induction drug, local nerve block technique, or OR assignment. Preservative-free morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) and bupivacaine (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb]) were administered epidurally in 85% (17/20), 85% (17/20), and 95% (19/20) of dogs in the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

action and improved postoperative analgesia. 6 Furthermore, brachial plexus blockade in humans with bupivacaine was superior when clonidine was added compared to epinephrine. 7 The addition of xylazine to lidocaine in caudal epidurals has been shown to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Volume 77, No. 7 July 2016 www.avma.org ANESTHESIA - ANALGESIA The effects of lidocaine or a lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture administered into the infraorbital canal in dogs Peter J. Pascoe et al 682 Local anesthesia, as performed in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

treatment resulted in good outcomes. See page 982 Transient unilateral vision loss in a dog following inadvertent intravitreal injection of bupivacaine A 4-year-old Chihuahua was evaluated because of unilateral vision loss following extraoral

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

improved during a 6-week follow-up period as they reduced their own activity. See page 1026 Continuous peripheral neural blockade to alleviate signs of severe forelimb pain in horses Continuous peripheral neural blockade with bupivacaine may be

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

% or 2% lidocaine solution can yield adverse effects in the anterior aspect of the eye. Bupivacaine, another type of local anesthetic that has a theoretically longer duration than does lidocaine, has been compared with lidocaine with regard to efficacy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, the variability in incision lengths implies that some patients’ incisions may have exceeded the length of the block. The authors also report errors and adverse events, including splenic laceration, suggesting improper technique and bupivacaine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Contrasting results have been obtained by Horowitz t concerning use of topical extradural administration of morphine and infiltration of the epaxial muscle with bupivacaine in dogs following hemilaminectomy. The majority (9/12) of dogs in which morphine (0

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association