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aliquots in cryovials at −80°C until analyzed. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were obtained via endoscopic lavage of the tracheal bronchus and right accessory lung lobe immediately prior to inoculation and on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Briefly, a sterile

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride, f and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by instilling 300 mL of warm (37°C) sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution through the biopsy channel followed immediately by aspiration. 4 Aspirated samples were stored in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

for BAL fluid and lung tissue collection. BAL and lung tissue collection —Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from harvested lungs after euthanasia of calves. An endoscope c (10 mm in diameter) was passed through the trachea and advanced

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on pigs 3 or 24 hours after intratracheal challenge with A pleuropneumoniae . Following sedation and induction of anesthesia as described for the experimental inoculation procedure, pigs were endotracheally intubated and a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

stress in horses with a history of RAO. A bbreviations AA Ascorbic acid AA free Free ascorbic acid AA total Total ascorbic acid BALF Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cGPx Cellular glutathione peroxidase DHA Dehydroascorbic acid ΔPpl

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

: active rest (hand walked); Day 5: upper airway endoscopy on high-speed treadmill during maximum intensity test at constant speed and tracheobronchoscopy after maximum intensity test; and Day 6: lower airway endoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

intramuscularly (IM) (n = 6); (4) 300 μg VapA IM (positive controls; n = 6); or, (5) nebulized water (negative controls; n = 6). Serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and PBMCs were collected from foals at ages 3, 22, and 35 days to test for relative anti

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine the effects of an aerosolized β2-adrenoreceptor agonist, albuterol, on performance during a standardized incremental exercise test in clinically normal horses.

Animals—8 Standardbred pacing mares.

Procedure—Clinically normal horses, as judged by use of physical examination, hematologic findings, serum biochemical analysis, and airway endoscopy, were randomly assigned to 2 groups and were given 900 µg of albuterol via a metered-dose inhaler 30 minutes before beginning a standardized incremental exercise test in a crossover design with a 7-day minimum washout. Further examination included measurement of baseline lung mechanics, response to histamine bronchoprovocation, and bronchoalveolar lavage.

Results—No significant differences (albuterol vs placebo) were seen for any incremental exercise test variables (ie, maximum oxygen consumption, maximum carbon dioxide consumption, respiratory quotient, treadmill speed at heart rate of 200 beats/min, or number of steps completed during an incremental exercise protocol). Mast cell percentage was significantly (r = –0.84) associated with the concentration of aerosolized histamine that evoked a 100% increase in total respiratory system resistance. No other direct correlations between bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell types and any indices of exercise capacity or airway reactivity were found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although no horse had exercise intolerance, 4 horses had airway hyperreactivity with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mastocytosis; these horses may have been subclinically affected with inflammatory airway disease. In our study, albuterol did not enhance performance in 8 clinically normal racing-fit Standardbreds. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1812–1817)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the role of tissue factor (TF) in the coagulation events leading to intra-alveolar fibrin deposition and intravascular thrombosis associated with pneumonic pasteurellosis in cattle.

Animals

Healthy 2- to 4-week-old male Holstein calves.

Procedures

Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected before and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after inoculation of saline solution or Pasteurella haemolytica. Total leukocyte count, platelet count, plasma total protein concentration, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time were measured in blood samples. Total nucleated cell count, total protein concentration, and procoagulant activity were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Additionally, platelet survival in blood, platelet accumulation in affected lung tissue, and gross and microscopic lung lesions were determined.

Results

Administration of TF monoclonal antibodies (MAB) TF1-1F7 prevented the decrease in platelet survival and the increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid TF-dependent procoagulant activity observed in calves not treated with MAB TF1-1F7 antibody, but did not attenuate the increase in lavage fluid neutrophil numbers and total protein concentration. MAB TF1-1F7 administration reduced the percentage of lung affected by pneumonic lesions from 51.81 % to 10.40% and attenuated intra-alveolar deposition of fibrin, neutrophils, and erythrocytes.

Conclusion

Intra-alveolar fibrin deposition and activation of coagulation in cattle with pneumonic pasteurellosis is, at least in part, mediated by TF.

Clinical Relevance

Treatments that neutralize TF activity may attenuate lung injury in cattle with pneumonic pasteurellosis (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:28–33)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether platelet-activating factor (PAF) is involved in acute lung microvascular injury associated with pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

Animals—15 healthy 2- to 4-week-old male Holstein calves.

Procedure—Calves were anesthetized and inoculated intrabronchially with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n = 5) or 1 × 109 Pasteurella haemolytica organisms (n = 10). Of the 10 calves inoculated with P haemolytica, 5 also were treated with WEB 2086, a potent inhibitor of PAF, and 5 were treated with vehicle. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after inoculation of P haemolytica. Blood samples were analyzed to evaluate total number and differential counts of leukocytes, dilute whole-blood leukocyte deformability, size of neutrophils, and neutrophil CD11b expression. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples were analyzed for total number and differential counts of nucleated cells, total protein concentration, and hemoglobin concentration. Size and gross and histologic appearance of lung lesions also was determined.

Results—Treatment of calves with WEB 2086 reduced size of lung lesions, attenuated the increase in microvascular permeability, and reduced neutrophil infiltration in the first 4 hours after inoculation. Treatment with WEB 2086 also attenuated a decrease in leukocyte deformability, increase in size of neutrophils, and CD11b expression by circulating neutrophils.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—It appears that PAF is a major mediator for altered lung microvascular permeability and activation of circulating neutrophils in the first 4 hours after onset of pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 248–254)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research