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centrifuged at 10,000 X g for 10 minutes. Synovial fluid was then divided into aliquots and stored at −80°C until further analysis. For control horses, aseptic arthrocentesis of both tarsocrural joints was performed via a dorsomedial approach by use of an

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

removed before horses were returned to their stalls. Collection of synovial and interstitial fluid samples Synovial fluid samples were collected from the metacarpophalangeal joint by repeated aseptic arthrocentesis with a 20-gauge, 3.8-cm needle

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

without joint arthrodesis. 12–15 Immune-mediated polyarthritis is typically diagnosed on the basis of cytologic evaluation of synovial fluid samples obtained by arthrocentesis from multiple joints. 16 Dogs with IMPA frequently have multiple joints in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

easily medicate swollen and painful joints, particularly in foals. Another advantage over daily injections may be a reduced amount of trauma associated with the catheter, compared with daily arthrocentesis. It was reported in a study 23 assessing the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

arthrocentesis. Three dogs that developed an infection did not receive cefazolin in the perioperative period. Nylon was the implant material in most dogs (n = 13) that developed an infection. Additional surgery was performed in all 14 dogs. Treatment included

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

were identified with a commercial kit. b Infections were classified as polymicrobial if > 1 species of microorganism were isolated from a single sample. Results of arthrocentesis were recorded when performed. Results of synovial fluid examination

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

signs of IMPA, medications, and observed adverse effects associated with leflunomide treatment. Response to leflunomide treatment —Because only 1 dog had arthrocentesis performed on the same joint both before and after treatment with leflunomide, dogs

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

concentrates; processing of each blood sample to obtain a platelet concentrate required 5 to 15 minutes. For administration of the platelet concentrate, arthrocentesis was performed and synovial fluid was withdrawn to confirm the needle was positioned within

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

contamination of joints with tissue debris and hair after arthrocentesis . Vet Surg 2010 ; 39 : 667 – 673 . 10. Wright IM , McMahon PJ . Tenosynovitis associated with longitudinal tears of the digital flexor tendons in horses: a report of 20 cases

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the right metacarpophalangeal joint of 6 weeks' duration. Notice moderate soft tissue swelling medial and lateral to the joint space. The axial borders of the proximal sesamoid bones are irregular (arrowheads). Arthrocentesis of the right

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association