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-12p40, IL-13, IL-18, PDGF-BB, SCF, and TNF-α). The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate this feline-specific multiplex, bead-based assay system for detection of recombinant and native proteins in feline EDTA-treated plasma, heparinized

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

behavioral modifications suggestive of maladaptive pain characterized by hyperalgesia and allodynia have also been identified. 4 In addition, high plasma concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, an important sensitizer of peripheral and central

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

tissue, and this leads to insulin resistance 3 and vascular endothelial dysfunction. 4 Obese horses, like obese humans, appear to be in a low-grade systemic inflammatory state. 5,6 Increased IL-1 and TNF-α expression has been detected in the blood of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Absorbance at 650 nm was read until the highest standard reached an approximate absorbance value of 1, at which point 50 μL of stop solution was added to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

apoptosis. Serum assays —Serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, growth hormone, and IGF-1 were analyzed with commercially available chicken ELISA kits, c–g according to the manufacturer's instructions. Serum concentrations of antibodies against NDV

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

experimental endotoxemia studies 15–19 in adult horses, with significant decreases in concentrations of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and TXB 2 ) as well as improved clinical attitude (eg, activity level, appetite, and mentation) scores in horses treated with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

addition of conditioned medium. The conditioned medium contained either recombinant human IL-1β f (50 ng/mL), recombinant equine TNF-α f (50 ng/mL), recombinant equine IL-6 f (50 ng/mL), or a combination of these 3 cytokines, each at a concentration of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to block mediators of degenerative processes is of great clinical relevance. There is evidence indicating that IL-1β and TNF-α are the most important proinflammatory cytokines in joint diseases. 1 Interleukin-1β and TNF-α can stimulate their own

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the proinflammatory response, several of the first-responder cytokines (IL-1, 4, and 6; TNF-α; and INF-γ 9 ) have a purely catabolic function, promoting a physiologic state of readiness to retrieve needed energy substrates from storage depots such as

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

chronic joint inflammation and cartilage destruction in humans with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament, an imbalance was detected between anabolic and catabolic cytokines. Cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α have been identified as the major effectors of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research