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Summary

One hundred eighty-one adult cats, with body weight > 1.8 kg, were obtained from animal shelters, then were administered a sodium pentobarbital-lidocaine euthanasia agent by either the intraperitoneal (ip; n = 77) or intrahepatic (ih; n = 85) route. A preliminary study (n = 19 cats) indicated that most cats gave no indication of perception of injection (responding) if restraint was minimal and injection was rapid. During ip injection, 3 of the 77 cats (4%) responded (turned the head backward or vocalized). Of the 85 cats given ih injection, 8 (9%) responded; however, no response approached the magnitude of that observed after im injection of ketamine hydrochloride. After either injection route, cats were observed for excitement (any exaggerated activities of stage-I and -II anesthesia (eg, vocalizing, flopping, sneezing, licking, running, paddling), and after cardiac standstill, cats were necropsied to identify exact location (final site) of the injection. Of 53 initial ip injections, final site for 22 (42%) was in the peritoneal cavity (pc). Use of a sideport needle (n = 24) did not significantly increase accuracy of ip injection. The small and large intestines were penetrated by 27% (15/55) of the ip injections from the right side, and the spleen was penetrated by 32% (7/22) of the left-side injections. Intrahepatic injection was significantly (P < 0.05) more accurate, with 70 of 85 (82%) of the final sites being the liver only, the liver/pc, or the pc only. Twenty-five percent (13/53) of ip injections resulted in excitement (all stage-I and -II anesthesia-exaggerated activities cumulative to 30 seconds). Final sites associated with excitement were spleen, small intestine, large intestine, and mesentery. Intrahepatic injection caused significantly (P = 0.007) less excitement, involving just 9% (8/85) of cats. Incoordination, recumbency, loss of pedal reflex, and cardiac standstill were significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged in cats of the ip injection group. Mean ± sem relevant values for cats of the ih injection group were times to: incoordination, 0.45 ± 0.14 minutes; recumbency, 1.11 ± 0.35 minutes; loss of pedal reflex, 3.45 ± 0.53 minutes, and cardiac standstill, 13.92 ± 0.92 minutes. When ih injection was entirely within the liver, recumbency was immediate.

As a result of causing minimal response from injection, moderate accuracy, low rate of excitement, and rapid achievement of recumbency, ih injection (although not the recommended method for euthanasia) is an alternative method for animal shelter cats when a veterinarian is not available to administer euthanasia agents iv.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

An experiment was conducted to determine whether a persistent Salmonella newport infection could be established in swine, to determine duration of shedding and distribution of the organism in internal organs, and to determine whether changes occurred in antimicrobial susceptibility or plasmid profile of the organism during the course of long-term infection. Naturally farrowed Salmonella-free pigs (n = 22) were orally exposed to a multiply antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic strain of S newport when they were 7 weeks old. Tonsillar and rectal swab specimens were examined bacteriologically for S newport during the first week after exposure, then weekly for 7 weeks. Fecal samples were likewise examined weekly or every 2 weeks for 28 weeks after exposure. Necropsies of 2 or 3 randomly selected pigs were conducted at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks after exposure. A total of 45 specimens/pig representing the following internal organs or tissues were examined bacteriologically for S newport: liver, spleen, kidney, gallbladder, heart, heart blood, lung, stomach, and tonsils; segments of the intestinal tract with corresponding lymph nodes; and lymph nodes from lymphocenters of the head and neck, thoracic cavity, thoracic limbs, abdominal viscera, and abdominal wall. Exposure to S newport induced a mild and transient clinical response. The organism was recovered from 97% of tonsillar swab specimens and 89% of rectal swab specimens collected during 7 weeks after exposure and from 98% of fecal samples collected during 28 weeks after exposure. At necropsy, S newport was recovered most frequently from tonsils (86.4%), followed by segments of the intestinal tract from ileum to rectum (81.8% recovery from cecal contents), and from mandibular (68.2%), jejunal (50%), and ileocolic (45.5%) lymph nodes. Sporadic recoveries of the organism were made from other lymph nodes and from gallbladder, stomach, kidney, spleen, liver, and heart, varying from 2 to 20 weeks after exposure. The cranial portion of jejunum, medial iliac lymph nodes, dorsal superficial cervical lymph node, and heart blood of all pigs were culture-negative. Of 26 representative isolates of S newport recovered from body organs or feces during 28 weeks after exposure, 4 (15.4%) underwent changes in antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Changes in plasmid profile of the organism were not detected during longterm infection of swine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

peritoneal fluid. The spleen was large and twisted, and a large amount of emphysema was detected during palpation. Histologic examination of the spleen was consistent with hemorrhage. No growth was detected on bacterial culture of peritoneal fluid and spleen

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

mandibular and mesenteric lymph nodes of both cats were moderately to markedly large, and the normal appearance was distorted by friable pinpoint yellow-white nodules. The parenchyma of the spleen, liver, and lungs contained multiple white, round, raised

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether severity of leukocytosis correlates with severity of postmortem lesions in dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—34 dogs with IMHA that had CBC performed within 48 hours prior to death and complete necropsy examinations.

Procedure—Dogs were independently assigned to 4 leukocytosis groups (within reference range; mild leukocytosis, moderate leukocytosis, marked leukocytosis) and 3 lesion severity groups (mild lesions, moderate lesions, severe lesions).

Results—Moderate to marked leukocytosis correlated with moderate to severe postmortem lesions. Ischemic necrosis within liver, kidney, heart, lung, and spleen attributable to thromboembolic disease or anemic hypoxia were the most common important lesions found at necropsy. None of the dogs with mild lesions had moderate or marked leukocytosis. Four of 14 severely affected dogs had WBC counts within reference range, but all 4 had neutrophilic left shifts. Three of these 4 dogs had toxic change in neutrophils.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Moderate to marked leukocytosis, neutrophilic left shift, and toxic change in neutrophils in dogs with IMHA should alert clinicians to the potential for moderate to severe tissue injury, which could complicate treatment and worsen prognosis. Lesions appear to be secondary to anemic hypoxia, thromboembolic disease, or both; therefore, treatment objectives should focus on improving blood oxygen-carrying capacity and monitoring for thromboembolic disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1308–1313)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, results of diagnostic testing, and outcome in horses with internal Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—30 horses.

Procedure—Information pertaining to clinical data, results of diagnostic tests, and costs of hospitalization and treatment was extracted from medical records of affected horses.

Results—Internal C pseudotuberculosis infection was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, diagnostic imaging, and clinicopathologic data, including results of serologic tests and bacterial culture. The most common clinical signs were concurrent external abscesses, anorexia, fever, lethargy, weight loss, and signs of respiratory tract disease or abdominal pain. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included a geometric mean reciprocal serum synergistic hemolysin inhibition titer ≥ 512, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and anemia. Specific organ involvement was diagnosed in 27 of 30 horses. Affected organs included the liver (18 horses), lungs (12), kidneys (7), and spleen (3); multiple organs were affected in 10 horses. Treatment with antimicrobials for a median of 36 days (range, 7 to 97 days) was usually successful, yielding an overall survival rate of 71%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Early diagnosis and long-term antimicrobial treatment were important for a successful outcome in horses with internal C pseudotuberculosis infection. Ultrasonographic imaging was an important technique for identifying specific organs affected, aiding in obtaining samples for a definitive diagnosis, and monitoring response to treatment. Pregnant mares with internal infections are at risk for fetal loss. Preexisting chronic organ disease may be associated with a poor prognosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:441–448)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the outcome of horses with nephrosplenic entrapment of the large colon (NSELC) treated surgically or medically by rolling, administration of phenylephrine hydrochloride (or both), and exercise.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—11 medically treated horses and 8 surgically treated horses with NSELC.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with nephrosplenic entrapment between 1992 and 2002 were reviewed. Medically treated horses were included if diagnosis and outcome of treatment of nephrosplenic entrapment were confirmed via transrectal examination and ultrasonographic examination. Surgically treated horses were included if the diagnosis was confirmed by exploratory laparotomy. Horses in which the large colon was entrapped between the spleen and body wall were not included.

Results—Significant differences in mean age, heart rate, and duration of colic prior to treatment were not detected between horses treated surgically or medically. Ten medically treated horses recovered without complications, and 1 died. In the surgically treated group, 6 of 8 horses recovered without complications and 2 died. Mortality rate did not differ between treatments. Duration of hospitalization for medically treated horses was significantly shorter and the cost significantly less than for surgically treated horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that medical treatment of horses with NSELC via administration of phenylephrine hydro-chloride, rolling during general anesthesia, or both appears to be as effective as and less expensive than surgical treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:603–605)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the clinical features of visceral mast cell tumors (MCT) without associated cutaneous involvement in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—10 dogs with histologically confirmed MCT without associated cutaneous lesions.

Procedure—Information on signalment, clinical signs, laboratory examinations, and time from first admission to death was obtained from the medical record of each dog.

Results—Purebred male dogs of miniature breeds appeared to have a higher prevalence of visceral MCT. Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea. Anemia (n = 7), hypoproteinemia (5), and mastocythemia (5) were detected. Treatments, including glucocorticoids, were not successful. Primary sites of tumors were the gastrointestinal tract (n = 6) and the spleen or liver (1); the primary site was not confirmed in the remaining 3 dogs. In 7 dogs, tumors were categorized as grade II or III, on the basis of histologic findings. The prognoses were poor, and all dogs died within 2 months after first admission.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visceral MCT is uncommon in dogs, and the prognosis is extremely poor. Biological behavior and drug susceptibility of visceral MCT may be different from cutaneous MCT. The lack of specific clinical signs may result in delay of a definitive diagnosis. The rapid progression of clinical signs and difficulty in diagnosis contributes to a short survival time. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 222–226)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Laparoscopy was performed on 6 horses (2 mares, 2 geldings, 2 stallions) to determine the normal laparoscopic anatomy of the equine abdomen. After withholding feed for 36 hours, horses were examined from the left and right paralumbar fossae, and the visceral anatomic structures were recorded by videotape and photography. One mare developed emphysema located subcutaneously at the primary laparoscopic portal; otherwise, there were no complications. The anatomic structures of diagnostic importance that were observed in the left half of the abdomen were the hepatic duct; left lateral and quadrate lobes of the liver; stomach; spleen; left kidney with the associated nephrosplenic ligament; segments of jejunum, descending colon, and ascending colon; left side of the male and female reproductive tracts; urinary bladder; vaginal ring; and mesorchium. Important structures observed in the right side of the abdomen were portions of the common hepatic duct; left lateral, quadrate, and right lobes of the liver; caudate process of the liver; stomach; duodenum; right dorsal colon, epiploic foramen; omental bursa; right kidney; base of the cecum; segments of jejunum, descending colon, and ascending colon; urinary bladder; right half of the male and female reproductive tracts; and rectum.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess whether foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-specific sequences could be identified in tissues from persistently virus-infected animals.

Design

Cattle with experimentally induced persistent FMDV infections were slaughtered at 750 days after viral exposure. Experimentally infected pigs were slaughtered at 28 days after FMDV inoculation. Postmortem specimens were asceptically removed.

Animals

Three bovids and 3 pigs were studied, as well as 1 control animal for each species.

Procedure

Various tissues were examined for the presence of FMDV-specific sequences by dot-blot hybridization assay, using a molecularly cloned FMDV cDNA corresponding to the polymerase coding region.

Results

The FMDV-specific genomic sequences were only detected in RNA from spleen, lung, larynx, tonsils, pancreas, liver, esophagus, and WBC of bovids.

Conclusions

It was established that, at late stages of the persistent infection, when virus isolation was not possible, cattle may carry FMDV-specific sequences in different tissues. Retention of viral sequences could not be demonstrated in specimens from experimentally infected swine, 28 days after viral inoculation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research