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fragment has also been identified. 13 In mammals, respiratory distress develops secondary to a myriad of causes and congestive heart failure and primary pulmonary disease are among the most common etiologies. However, distinguishing between these 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

significantly different from values for sows inoculated with the WTV strain. Table 1— Reproductive outcomes among sows inoculated with a wild-type strain of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV strain WTV; group 1), inoculated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Pharmacokinetic determinants of spiramycin and its distribution into the respiratory tract were studied in 2 groups of calves, 4 to 10 weeks old. Group-A calves (n = 4) were used to determine pharmacokinetic variables of spiramycin after iv (15 and 30 mg/kg of body weight) and oral administrations of the drug (30 mg/kg) and to measure distribution of spiramycin into nasal and bronchial secretions. Group-B calves (n = 4) were used to determine distribution of spiramycin into lung tissue and bronchial mucosa. Spiramycin disposition was best described by use of an open 3-compartment model. Mean (± SD) elimination half-life was 28.7 ± 12.3 hours, and steadystate volume of distribution was 23.5 ± 6.0 L/kg. Bioavailability after oral administration was 4 ± 3%. High and persistent concentrations of spiramycin were achieved in the respiratory tract tissues and fluids. Tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio was 58 for lung tissue and 18 for bronchial mucosa at 3 hours after spiramycin administration and 137 and 49, respectively at 24 hours. Secretion-to-plasma concentration ratio was 4 for nasal secretions and 7 for bronchial secretions, and remained almost constant with time. Thus, spiramycin penetrates well into the respiratory tract, although the value in bronchial secretions is lower than that in lung tissues and bronchial mucosa. Calculations indicate that a loading dose of 45 mg/kg, administered iv, followed by a maintenance dose of 20 mg/kg, iv, once daily is required to maintain active concentrations of spiramycin against bovine pathogens in bronchial secretions.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine the maximal IV administered dose of propofol that would not induce a serious adverse event in nonsedated dogs.

Animals

6 clinically normal dogs (3 males and 3 females) between 8 and 12 months old and weighing between 8.8 and 11.3 kg.

Procedure

Propofol was administered IV at an initial dosage of 6.5 mg/kg of body weight at a rate of 20 mg/10 s. Subsequent doses were incrementally increased by 2.5 mg/kg (eg, second dose: 9 mg/kg) and separated by a minimum of 3 days. This procedure was repeated until a dose that induced a serious respiratory, cardiovascular, or neurologic adverse effect was determined.

Results

Apnea was determined to be the serious adverse effect for all dogs. Duration of apnea varied between dogs, but increased in a dose-dependent manner at dosages > 14 mg/kg.

Conclusions

Respiratory depression and apnea are the most likely adverse effects induced by IV administration of propofol to dogs. Propofol administered IV at a rate of 20 mg/kg/10 s induces minimal cardiovascular depression at dosages in excess of the apneic dosage.

Clinical Relevance

Respiratory depression and apnea should be expected as potential adverse effects after IV administration of propofol to dogs, particularly when administered at rapid rates of infusion. (Am J Vet Res 1998:59:157–161)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease of pigs, resulting in loss of production, reduced animal welfare, and economic losses estimated at $660M/y to the US swine industry. 1 PRRS is caused

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

costs, reduced animal performance, and death from BRDC. 4–6 Bovine respiratory disease complex is a multifactorial syndrome caused by environmental factors, management practices, animal susceptibility, and viral and bacterial pathogens. 6 Results of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Bovine respiratory disease complex continues to be an important health issue in the beef cattle industry. 1–5 In a national survey, > 33% of cow-calf producers agreed or strongly agreed that BRDC is economically important to their operation. 6

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is an enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Arteriviridae . 1 Since its emergence in the United States during the late 1980s, PRRSV has been one of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Respiratory distress syndrome is a condition of newborn infants and neonatal calves in which insufficient oxygen uptake and increased retention of carbon dioxide result in respiratory acidosis. 1,2 The condition is more common in premature

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome has been estimated to cost the US swine industry 560 million dollars in losses each year. 1 Results of the same study 1 indicate that 88% of the total cost of PRRSV infections in the United States is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research