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especially important in captive reptiles because of the high incidence of calcium deficiency–related pathological changes (ie, metabolic bone disease) in these animals. 4,5 In addition, chameleons with adequate circulating concentrations of vitamin D have

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

some anaerobes. 1 There is a paucity of studies in which the activity of ceftiofur or its metabolites against bacterial isolates from reptiles has been evaluated. Three major formulations of ceftiofur are available for use in veterinary medicine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction Untreated pain and causes of stress in reptiles are associated with immunocompromise, negative energy balance, and delayed wound healing. 1 Well-defined guidelines exist regarding pain assessment and management in mammals, 2 , 3

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

reclassified from protozoa to fungi, with an unusual life cycle including both merogenic and sporogenic phases. a Although reptiles are only rarely infected, microsporidiosis may lead to severe illness or death. 12 Little is known about the epidemiology of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. In reptiles in general, many risk factors have been associated with the development of gout, such as dehydration, kidney damage, diet, and excessive intake of purine-rich food in herbivorous reptiles fed a diet high in animal protein. 1 Misuse of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Similar to the skin of higher vertebrates, reptile skin consists of an epidermis and dermis and acts as a physical barrier against pathogens and to prevent the loss of electrolytes and fluids. Integumentary injury is characterized initially by an

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

reptiles. However, results of a recent study 2 revealed that the ED 50 of isoflurane for anesthesia in green iguanas is 30% to 80% higher than the MAC 3 measured in other species. 4–9 The MAC is a commonly used indicator of inhaled anesthetic potency

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Monitoring of arterial blood pressure is an essential part of anesthetic monitoring in humans and domestic animals but is rarely used during anesthetic monitoring in reptiles. 1,2 In the absence of clinically practical indicators of cardiac

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Ball pythons (Python regius) are kept as pets and are often maintained in research laboratories and zoological institutions, making them one of the most common reptile species evaluated by veterinarians. Sedation or a light plane of anesthesia

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

T he current AVMA euthanasia guidelines acknowledge the unique challenges inherent to reptile euthanasia. 1 Ideally, intravascular administration of sodium pentobarbital, the primary active ingredient in euthanasia solution, is preferred. 1 , 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research