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specimen obtained by use of endoscopy revealed hepatic lipidosis, which commonly affects psittacines. 2,4 The cause of hepatic lipidosis is unknown, but proposed contributing factors include nutritional deficiencies, lack of exercise, obesity, metabolic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

parasympatholytic mydriatic agents clinically ineffective. Topical administration of rocuronium bromide has been shown to result in mydriasis in several species of birds of prey, but its efficacy in psittacines has not been evaluated. In a study of 8 healthy adult

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hyperthermia, tachypnea, and acute decompensation of critically ill individuals potentially resulting in mortality. 3 , 4 Additionally, the struggling of psittacines during manual restraint can result in injury to both the patient and veterinary personnel. 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

a proventriculus-to-keel ratio of 0.92, which was still much higher than the ratio reported for healthy noneclectus psittacines (< 0.5). 14 , 17 It has been suggested that eclectus parrots have a relatively large proventriculus in comparison with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

trimming). Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid drug with mixed agonist-antagonist effects, with strong effects at κ- and σ-opioid receptors and weak activity at μ-opioid receptors. It is commonly used for analgesia, especially in psittacine species, and for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

drugs for acute pain management and preemptive analgesia in psittacine birds. 10–13 Morphine, a pure μ-opioid agonist, is not commonly used in avian medicine because experiments that involved the use of domestic fowl yielded conflicting results. In a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

sedatives is frequently used in birds and allows for rapid administration and reliable drug delivery. 2 Midazolam, a benzodiazepine, is the most frequently used drug for psittacine sedation owing to its sedative, anxiolytic, and amnesic properties. 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

carcinoma, and psittacines, in particular the greycheeked parakeet ( Brotogeris pyrrhoptera ), are most frequently affected. 4,9 In a study 7 of 2,281 domestic fowl necropsied over a 10-year period, 2 cases of proventricular adenocarcinoma were diagnosed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

tumor size with precedent radiation therapy, this may as well be beneficial in avian patients. 5 The case described in the present report has contributed to the scarce reports of thymoma in psittacine birds. Although rare in older psittacine patients

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, are the recommended opioid drugs for acute pain management and preemptive analgesia in psittacine birds on the basis of results for pharmacodynamic studies. 10–14 Tramadol hydrochloride, a weak μ-opioid receptor agonist that also inhibits reuptake of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research