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scoring system. 49 The hooves were asymmetric; the lateral aspect of the hoof wall had a long and concave shape, compared with the medial aspect, in all limbs. Neurologic examination revealed moderate to severe obtundation, absent menace response

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

exclude the cornified, avascular tissue of the hoof wall. The ability to derive quantitative BF and VPM information via DCE-CT is dependent on several key properties of an intravascular iodinated contrast medium. First, there is a linear relationship

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

), coronary band laceration (2), osteoarthritis (2), hoof wall crack (2), osteomyelitis of the third phalanx (1), sepsis of a distal interphalangeal joint (1), false sole (1), sole bruise (1), presumptive fracture of the second phalanx (1), coronary band

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with a dynamic range of ± 500 g in each axis was screwed onto the dorsal part of the hoof wall of the left forelimb with known orientation relative to the hoof wall. To correct any misalignments and transform the accelerometer coordinate system to the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

laminitis (gait with a shortened stride, placement of the hoof in a heel-toe manner, divergent rings in the hoof wall, or a convex sole) or was obese (body condition score 20 > 6; cresty neck score 21 > 3). Horses were slaughtered in accordance with

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

made in the medial aspect of the IMU casing to increase the surface area for attachment of the IMU to a hoof wall. Notice on the lateral view the local optical reference frame with the origin for the z- and x-axes between the cranial and caudal markers

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

that pertain mainly to pathogenic events in the acute stage, when separation of the hoof wall from the pedal bone is beginning. 9,10 Once separation occurs, there is little opportunity for effective intervention. 11 Preceding the acute stage of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

proximal portion of the hoof wall as the horse moved 12 (lightweight tactile stimulators); flexible human wrist weights (700 g) wrapped in tape for protection and attached snugly around the hind pasterns by use of fabric hook-and-loop fastener straps and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

express receptors for PGE 2 and PGF 2α . Although there is evidence for the existence of receptors for epidermal growth factor in hoof wall tissue of horses, 28 we are unaware of studies in which the presence of eicosanoid receptors on these cells was

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

contain a medullary cavity. 4 Septic pedal osteitis in adult horses has been associated with conditions such as hoof wall avulsion, fractures, and laminitis; however, penetrating wounds and subsolar abscesses remain the leading causes. 3,5,6 Although

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association