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Obesity, which is defined as an accumulation of excess body fat, is the most common nutritional disorder in small animals and is associated with various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, arthropathies, and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ultrasonography for other primary disease processes, including recurrent pancreatitis (n = 6 dogs), protein-losing nephropathy (2), pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (2), hypothyroidism (1), pancytopenia (1), and diabetes mellitus associated with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.4* (0.28–0.65) — — — Disease of blood and blood-forming organs 87 58.2 1.5* (1.20–1.84) ≤ 5 ≤ 5 1.2 (0.24–3.42) Diabetes mellitus 184 268.0 0.7* (0.59–0.79) 6 15.7 0.4* (0.14–0.83) Mental and psychological

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

An 8-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was evaluated for acute blepharospasm and epiphora of the left eye. Diabetes mellitus had been diagnosed in the dog 8 months earlier, and the dog was receiving neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

), urinary tract infection (3), vomiting (3), corneal ulcers (2), diabetes mellitus (2), renal failure, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, cruciate ligament tear, hepatic mass, mammary gland adenoma, lymphoma, demodectic mange, and septic arthritis of a single joint

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hypothesized that pancreatitis would be associated with the development of renal infarction in cats, that cats with pancreatitis consume more exclusively dry-food diets, and that cats with pancreatitis have an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Our

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of retinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms in dogs with diabetes mellitus following cataract extraction by means of phacoemulsification and identify potential risk factors.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—52 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 174 dogs without.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs undergoing phacoemulsification between 1993 and 2003 were reviewed, and information was recorded on signalment, history, physical examination findings, ophthalmic examination findings, results of laboratory testing, electroretinographic findings, and surgical findings. Glycemic control was classified as poor, intermediate, or good on the basis of baseline blood glucose concentration, perioperative body weight loss, daily insulin dosage, and presence of glucosuria and ketonuria. Data from diabetic and nondiabetic dogs were analyzed to determine prevalence and risk factors for development of retinal hemorrhages or microaneurysms following phacoemulsification.

Results—11 of the 52 (21%) dogs with diabetes mellitus developed ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal hemorrhages or microaneurysms, compared with 1 of the 174 (0.6%) nondiabetic dogs. Median time from onset of diabetes mellitus to diagnosis of retinopathy was 1.4 years (range, 0.5 to 3.2 years). No risk factors for development of retinopathy were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that retinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms may be more common and develop earlier in diabetic dogs than previously reported. This may affect treatment, as diabetic dogs survive longer with improved glycemic control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 709–716)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of pituitary tumors, detectable by means of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, in cats with insulin resistance suspected to have acromegaly or hyperadrenocorticism versus cats with well-controlled diabetes mellitus.

Design—Case series.

Animals—16 cats with insulin resistance that were also suspected to have acromegaly (n = 12) or pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (4) and 8 cats with well-controlled diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Computed tomography was performed on all 16 cats with insulin resistance and 2 cats in which diabetes mellitus was well-controlled. The remaining 6 cats in which diabetes mellitus was wellcontrolled underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Images were obtained before and immediately after IV administration of contrast medium.

Results—Computed tomography revealed a mass in the region of the pituitary gland in all 16 cats with insulin resistance. Maximum width of the masses ranged from 4.4 to 12.7 mm; maximum height ranged from 3.1 to 12.6 mm. Results of computed tomography performed on 2 cats with well-controlled diabetes and magnetic resonance imaging performed on the remaining 6 cats were considered normal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cats with insulin resistance suspected to have acromegaly or pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism are likely to have a pituitary mass detectable by means of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 1765–1768)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • The most common cause of naturally developing acromegaly in cats is a growth hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary pars distalis somatotropic cells.

  • Irradiation of pituitary gland tumors in cats with acromegaly may result in transient or long-term resolution of acromegaly and diabetes mellitus.

  • Diabetic cats with acromegaly may have a history of weight loss instead of weight gain.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for use in dogs, cats, and horses.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—7 horses, 3 cats, and 4 dogs that were clinically normal and 1 horse, 2 cats, and 3 dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Interstitial glucose concentrations were monitored and recorded every 5 minutes by use of a CGMS. Interstitial glucose concentrations were compared with whole blood glucose concentrations as determined by a point-of-care glucose meter. Interstitial glucose concentrations were also monitored in 2 clinically normal horses after oral and IV administration of glucose.

Results—There was a positive correlation between interstitial and whole blood glucose concentrations for clinically normal dogs, cats, and horses and those with diabetes mellitus. Events such as feeding, glucose or insulin administration, restraint, and transport to the clinic were recorded by the owner or clinician and could be identified on the graph and associated with time of occurrence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our data indicate that use of CGMS is valid for dogs, cats, and horses. This system alleviated the need for multiple blood samples and the stress associated with obtaining those samples. Because hospitalization was not required, information obtained from the CGMS provided a more accurate assessment of the animal's glucose concentrations for an extended period, compared with measurement of blood glucose concentrations. Use of the CGMS will promote the diagnostic and research potential of serial glucose monitoring. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 987–992)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association