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concentration of inhalant anesthetics needed for anesthesia. 4–6 Mepivacaine and bupivacaine are other local anesthetics that have been used in veterinary medicine. Both have a longer duration of action than does lidocaine, with the effects of mepivacaine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

morphine has been associated with prolonged postoperative analgesia of up to 16 hours when administered alone and up to 20 hours when combined with bupivacaine. 3 Conversely, in another study 4 in dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery, the postoperative

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Vet Anaesth Analg 2003 ; 30 : 220 – 228 . 10.1046/j.1467-2995.2003.00090.x 5. Almeida TF Fantoni DT Mastrocinque S , et al. Epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine, bupivacaine and fentanyl, or bupivacaine and sufentanil during

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

postoperatively. In pediatric hernia repair in humans, preoperative caudal epidural administration of S(+)-ketamine (1 mg/kg) provided analgesia after surgery that was equivalent to that achieved with administration of bupivacaine via the same route. 36 Recently

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

analgesia did not differ between bupivacaine and bupivacaine-neostigmine treatments in children 21,22 or between morphine and morphine-neostigmine treatments in dogs. 13 Another study 23 revealed that the interval to first administration of rescue

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

is exposed to a low concentration of local anesthetic, whereas a higher concentration can produce motor blockade. 7 Ropivacaine and bupivacaine have been compared to evaluate which has superior differential blockade effects, but the results are

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

previously 13 but with modifications. Bupivacaine was used as an internal standard. The lower limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL. For the analyses of lidocaine in quality control plasma samples at concentrations of 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/mL, the overall

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-free morphine (0.1 mg/kg) and a volume of bupivacaine equivalent to that of the morphine. In addition, at the discretion of the anesthetist, morphine (0.5 mg/kg, IV) was given to each dog during surgery as needed for pain control. Abdominal surgery of each dog

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, and right mandibular third molar teeth was recommended because of stage 3 periodontal disease. Left and right infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerve blocks were performed with a mixture of bupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/mL) and epinephrine (1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

biomarkers have been assessed previously in studies 13 , 17 evaluating the effects of the local anesthetic bupivacaine on articular cartilage in horses. In the present study, dexmedetomidine administration did not lead to a significant change in C2C

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research