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via arthrocentesis from both stifle joints. Gastroduodenoscopy was performed, and endoscopic biopsy specimens were collected from the gastric antrum near the pylorus and the duodenum proximal to the duodenal papilla. Investigators were unaware of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, arthrocentesis of the stifle joint intended to receive surgery was performed. Synovial fluid was aspirated from each stifle joint by use of a 1.5-in 18-gauge needle and syringe, such that all synovial fluid that could readily be aspirated with redirection of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

were trained by means of positive reinforcement techniques to accept handling and all experimental procedures, including radiocarpal arthrocentesis. Induction of synovitis —Synovitis was induced by means of aseptic IA injection (21-gauge needle) of 3

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

osteochondral fragments from an MCP joint (n = 14 horses), MTP joint (4), MCJ (17), or RCJ (10). Synovial fluid samples were aseptically collected via needle arthrocentesis, centrifuged, decanted, and stored at −80°C until assayed. Procedure for the HMGB-1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

initial treatment by a referring veterinarian. All joints in which septic arthritis developed underwent arthrocentesis, and synovial fluid was submitted for bacterial culture. Bacterial isolates were obtained in 6 of 8 joints with septic arthritis and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

detectable distension, heat, redness, and signs of pain during palpation of affected joints. A presumptive diagnosis of septic arthritis is confirmed on the basis of findings of arthrocentesis (bacterial culture results and cytologic evaluation and biomarker

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

arthrocentesis . Equine Vet J 2004 ; 36 : 34 – 40 . 26 van den Boom R Brama PA Kiers GH , et al . The influence of repeated arthrocentesis and exercise on matrix metalloproteinase and tumour necrosis factor alpha activities in normal equine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

including humans, swine, mice, dogs, cats, and horses. 10 – 16 In humans, IA buprenorphine after arthrocentesis of the temporomandibular joint provided pain relief and increased joint mobility when compared to saline. 17 Other studies 18 , 19 in people

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the affected joint of each dog immediately prior to initiation of surgery to correct the CCLR. Arthrocentesis was performed before surgery to avoid contamination of the synovial fluid samples with blood. The control group consisted of 12 client

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

sample was collected from each horse via jugular venipuncture into serum-separating tubes. The blood was allowed to clot, samples were centrifuged, and the serum was decanted. Synovial fluid was aseptically collected by use of needle arthrocentesis

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research