Search Results

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 745 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

9–11 among investigators for typifying adequate transfer of passive immunity. A strong correlation has been detected between the IgG content of ingested colostrum and the sIgG concentration of foals. 6,11–13 Therefore, offspring of mares that

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

response with monoclonal antibodies (dilutions appear in parentheses) directed to lymphocytes expressing canine leukocyte surface antigens, including anti-CD20 c (1:400), anti-CD79a d (1:50), and anti-CD3 e (1:200) as well as anti-canine IgG f (1

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

early IV administration of antivenom. In 1954, the introduction of the first antivenom product, an equine-derived whole IgG antivenom, a resulted in a decrease in the human mortality rate from 25% to 0.5%. 1 However, the same product was also

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To develop an algorithm for predicting passive transfer status of lambs of various ages, using the lamb's age and serum ɣ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

51 Suffolk, Columbia, and crossbred lambs from 1 to 16 days old.

Procedure

Serum was obtained from all lambs. Serum GGT activity was measured, using a commercially available kit. Serum IgG concentration was determined by use of radial immunodiffusion. Day-1 serum IgG concentration was estimated from sample IgG concentration, lamb age, and the published 14-day half-life of IgG in lambs. Stepwise multivariate regression models were developed to estimate day-1 serum IgG concentration as a function of the natural logarithm of serum GGT activity (In[GGT]) and natural logarithm of lamb age (In[age]) at the time of sampling. These regression models were then used to calculate serum GGT activities that were equivalent to various day-1 IgG concentrations in lambs of various ages.

Results

In(GGT) and In(age) were significantly associated with estimated day-1 IgG concentration. Day-1 serum IgG concentration could be predicted using the formula: IgG = −7,686 + 1,366(In[GGT]) + 1,199(In[age]). The model was moderately accurate in predicting serum IgG concentration (R 2 = 0.52).

Clinical Implications

Serum GGT activity can be used to assess passive transfer status of lambs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1163–1164)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Serum samples for determination of IgG concentration were obtained between postpartum hours 18 and 48 from 132 Standardbred foals. Results of the IgG assay were not known to farm personnel. None of the foals was given plasma iv for treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia. Foal health records were examined retrospectively to determine prevalence of infectious-type illness (foal treatment days [ftd]), prevalence of life-threatening infectious illness (foal treatment days-serious condition [ftd-sc]), and number of diseases (nod) per foal. Values for ftd, ftd-sc, and nod per foal were compiled for the first 21 days of life and for the first 90 days of life. The ftd, ftd-sc, and nod per foal values were compared for foals with < 400 mg of IgG/dl and for foals with ≥ 400 mg of IgG/dl; the same variables were compared for foals with < 800 mg of IgG/dl and for foals with ≥ 800 mg of IgG/dl. Statistical analysis indicated that IgG concentration was not associated with ftd, ftd-sc, or nod in foals of any of the groups. Also, despite a large subpopulation of hypogammaglobulinemic foals (13.6% with < 400 mg of IgG/dl and 44.7% with < 800 mg of IgG/dl), the 21-day and 90-day overall survival rates were 100 and 99.2%, respectively. The data strongly suggest that serum IgG concentration was not related to prevalence or severity of illness or to survival rate in this population of foals.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Ten foals of various breeds were deprived of colostrum from birth to 36 hours of age, then were allotted to 2 groups. Foals of group 1 (n = 6) were given 20 g (200 ml) of purified equine IgG iv in a 10% solution, and foals of group 2 (n = 4) were given 30 g (300 ml) of the same preparation. Total administration time for each 10 g of IgG in 100 ml was approximately 10 minutes. Serum IgG concentration in foals was assessed prior to, between 24 and 48 hours, and at 7 and 14 days after IgG administration.

Between 24 and 48 hours after IgG administration, mean serum IgG concentration in group-1 foals was 425 mg/dl (range, 350 to 480 mg/dl). Mean body weight for this group of foals was 50.3 kg (range, 43.3 to 54.7 kg).

For group-2 foals, mean serum IgG concentration was 768 mg/dl (range, 640 to 920 mg/dl) between 24 and 48 hours after administration of IgG. Foals of this group had mean body weight of 43.2 kg (range, 36.5 to 47.5 kg). Serum IgG concentration in group-2 foals at 24 to 48 hours was significantly (P = 0.005) greater than that in group- 1 foals.

Mean total IgG recovery at 24 to 48 hours, calculated on the basis of 94.5 ml of plasma volume/kg of body weight, was approximately 100%.

Values of IgG measured in all foals 1 and 2 weeks after administration of the IgG concentrate were equivalent to values expected after normal decay of passively acquired IgG. Mild, adverse reactions occurred in 3 of the 10 foals treated (1 group-1 foal and 2 group-2 foals).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

gondii inoculation of each cat had negative results when tested for T gondii oocysts and other enteric parasite eggs, cysts, or oocysts. Anti– T gondii IgM and IgG ELISA Serum samples for ELISAs were obtained from each cat at the same times as

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

sporocysts to horses elicited synthesis of S neurona –specific IgG and IgM in blood and CSF, but protozoa were not detected in the CNS tissues of challenged horses. Neurologic signs and histologic evidence of CNS inflammation have developed inconsistently in

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate precolostral hypogammaglobulinemia in neonatal llamas and alpacas, to determine when postcolostral peak serum IgG concentrations develop, to determine whether differences in postcolostral serum IgG concentrations between llamas and alpacas exist, and to determine postcolostral half-life of serum IgG in llamas and alpacas.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—29 llama and 10 alpaca crias.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected prior to suckling and on days 1, 2, and 3 after parturition and analyzed for serum IgG concentration by use of a commercial radial immunodiffusion assay. Additional samples were collected on days 8, 13, and 18 from 8 crias to determine mean half-life of IgG.

Results—Llamas and alpacas are born severely hypogammaglobulinemic. Mean serum IgG concentrations for day-1, -2, and -3 samples for llamas were 1,578 mg/dl, 1,579 mg/dl, and 1,401 mg/dl, respectively, and for alpacas were 2,024 mg/dl, 1,806 mg/dl, and 1,669 mg/dl, respectively. Peak serum immunoglobulin concentration developed between days 1 and 2. Mean half-life of IgG for all crias was 15.7 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although increased mortality has been linked to failure of passive transfer, it is clearly possible to raise crias that have low serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Llamas and alpacas do not differ significantly with respect to immunoglobulin absorption or IgG concentration in neonates. The optimal sampling time for passive transfer status is between 1 and 2 days. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:738–741)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Bovine immunoglobulin isotype-specific murine monoclonal antibodies were used in sandwich radioimmunoassays to detect and quantitate bovine IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA in culture fluids. The concentrations of bovine immunoglobulins in unknown samples were extrapolated from standard curves generated with bovine monoclonal immunoglobulins. The lowest detection limits for the bovine immunoglobulin isotypes ranged from 65 to 270 ng/ml.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research