Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 368 items for :

  • "veterinary microbiology" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Summary

Pasteurella multocida isolated from turkeys during an outbreak of fowl cholera was characterized by serotype and heterogeneity of genes encoding rrna (ribotype) to investigate the epidemiology of the organism. Isolates were collected between October 1985 and July 1986. The M9 or Clemson University fowl cholera vaccine-like strain was detected in 17% of the flocks with fowl cholera. One particular strain, isolated only from breeder flocks, was recovered from 7 of the 10 breeder flocks examined in this study. Intracompany transmission appeared to be common, implying a failure in biosecurity. Circumstantial evidence indicated that in the field, the incubation period of P multocida in a turkey flock may be between 2 to 7 weeks. Wildlife did not appear to be an important reservoir of P multocida for turkeys during this study period. Ribotyping results tended to discount several of the possible interflock transmissions, as suggested by examination of serotyping results alone; however, serotyping in combination with ribotyping proved helpful in understanding the epidemiology of P multocida in turkeys.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

From Aug 1985 through July 1986, 720 meat turkey flocks on 160 California premises were monitored and outbreaks of fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida) were investigated. Data from 43 outbreak (case) flocks were compared with data from 43 nonoutbreak (control) flocks. Outbreak flocks, compared with control flocks, were more likely to be located on premises with higher maximal bird capacity and history of fowl cholera outbreaks. The overall impression was that flocks in larger, newer, more intensively managed premises were at greater risk of fowl cholera outbreaks than were other flocks.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Chronic pneumonia was investigated in a litter of young Chinese Shar Pei in which 4 of 6 dogs were affected. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations (IgA, IgG, IgM) determined by radial immunodiffusion varied over time, but were not consistently lower in affected dogs, compared with control dogs. Two dogs that died had hydrocephalus and lymphoid depletion, in addition to severe bronchopneumonia. Evaluation of ciliary ultrastructure in 2 affected dogs revealed random orientation of adjacent respiratory tract or oviductal cilia and a greater number of microtubular disarrangements, compared with control dogs. In vivo tracheal mucociliary clearance of 99mtechnetium macroaggregated albumin was absent in 1 dog examined. The ciliary abnormalities were suspected to have resulted in an inefficient mucociliary transport system predisposing to the development of pneumonia. Further evaluation of 1 Chinese Shar Pei revealed lymphocyte mitogenesis results that were not consistently less than those of a control dog, normal total hemolytic complement values, and normal blood neutrophil chemotaxis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The influence of recombinant bovine interferon gamma (rBoIFN-gamma) treatment on resistance of clinically normal and dexamethasone-treated calves to Haemophilus somnus infection was evaluated. Four groups of 6 calves each were treated with saline solution (controls), dexamethasone (0.04 mg/kg of body weight/for 3 days), rBoIFN-gamma (2 μg/kg for 2 days), or dexamethasone and rBoIFN-gamma (aforementioned dosages). All treatments were started 24 hours before intrabronchial challenge exposure with 5 × 109 colony-forming units of H somnus. Rectal temperature and WBC count were monitored daily. Two of the dexamethasone-treated calves died of pneumonia 4 days after challenge exposure and were necropsied. All other calves were euthanatized and necropsied 7 days after challenge exposure. All calves had pneumonia of variable intensity. Dexamethasone-treated calves had increased volume of pneumonic lung (P < 0.05) and increased severity of pneumonia, compared with control calves. Recombinant bovine interferon gamma treatment resulted in reduction in pneumonic lung volume and severity of pneumonia in dexamethasone-treated calves (P < 0.05), although it did not influence severity of pneumonia in nondexamethasone-treated calves.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

At an abattoir, lesion specimens from 140 condemned sheep livers were collected for bacteriologie culture and for pathologic examination. Grossly, 23 lesions were abscesses; from 9 of which, Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A (3 in pure culture and 6 in mixed culture) was isolated and from 14 of which, biovar B (6 in pure culture and 8 in mixed culture) was isolated. Escherichia coli was the predominant facultative anaerobic bacterium and Clostridium perfringens was the predominant obligate anaerobic bacterium isolated from the 14 lesions with mixed bacterial infection. Histologically, these lesions had a core of coagulation necrosis, encircled by a zone of necrotic phagocytic cells and bacteria with cellular characteristics of F necrophorum biovars A or B, and a connective tissue capsule.

Of the 117 lesions without F necrophorum, 49 were culture-positive (for other organisms) and 69 were culturenegative. These 117 lesions were fibrous and were smaller than the 23 abscesses. A variety of gram-positive and gram-negative facultative anaerobic and obligate anaerobic bacteria was isolated from the culture-positive lesions, but always in low numbers. Eleven culture-negative and 18 culture-positive lesions were examined and had histologic characteristics of parasite-induced granulomas, with numerous eosinophils and epithelioid giant cells.

Results of the study indicated that the histologic appearance of ovine hepatic lesions with F necrophorum was similar to bovine liver abscesses caused by F necrophorum, but unlike bovine liver abscesses, F necrophorum biovar B was isolated more frequently than was biovar A and often in pure culture. Most of the lesions in the condemned livers were parasite-induced granulomas.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine cardiovascular effects of desflurane in mechanically ventilated calves.

Animals—8 healthy male calves.

Procedure—Calves were anesthetized by face mask administration of desflurane to permit instrumentation. Administration of desflurane was temporarily discontinued until mean arterial blood pressure increased to ≥ 100 mm Hg, at which time baseline cardiovascular values, pulmonary arterial temperature, end-tidal CO2 tension, and end-tidal desflurane concentration were recorded. Cardiac index and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances were calculated. Arterial blood gas variables were measured and calculated. Mean end-tidal concentration of desflurane at this time was 3.4%. After collection of baseline values, administration of 10% end-tidal concentration of desflurane was resumed and calves were connected to a mechanical ventilator. Cardiovascular data were collected at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes, whereas arterial blood gas data were collected at 15 and 45 minutes after collection of baseline data.

Results—Mean ± SD duration from beginning desflurane administration to intubation of the trachea was 151 ± 32.8 seconds. Relative to baseline, desflurane anesthesia was associated with a maximal decrease in arterial blood pressure of 35% and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance of 34%. Pulmonary arterial blood temperature was decreased from 15 through 45 minutes, compared with baseline values. There were no significant changes in other measured variables. All calves recovered from anesthesia without complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of desflurane for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in calves was smooth, safe, and effective. Cardiopulmonary variables remained in reference ranges throughout the study period.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the efficacy of a modified-live virus vaccine containing bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza virus 3, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 to induce neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immunity in naïve cattle and protect against BHV-1 challenge.

Animals—17 calves.

Procedures—8 calves were mock-vaccinated with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control calves), and 9 calves were vaccinated at 15 to 16 weeks of age. All calves were challenged with BHV-1 25 weeks after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responsiveness were tested on the day of vaccination and periodically after vaccination and BHV-1 challenge. Specific T-cell responses were evaluated by comparing CD25 upregulation and intracellular interferon-γ expression by 5-color flow cytometry. Titration of BHV-1 in nasal secretions was performed daily after challenge.

Results—Vaccinated calves seroconverted by week 4 after vaccination. Antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses, by CD25 expression index, were significantly higher in vaccinated calves than control calves. Compared with control calves, antigen-specific interferon-γ expression was significantly higher in calves during weeks 4 to 8 after vaccination, declining by week 24. After BHV-1 challenge, both neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses of vaccinated calves had anamnestic responses to BHV-1. Vaccinated calves shed virus in nasal secretions at significantly lower titers for a shorter period and had significantly lower rectal temperatures than control calves.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of vaccine effectively induced humoral and cellular immune responses against BHV-1, BRSV, and BVDV types 1 and 2 and protected calves after BHV-1 challenge for 6 months after vaccination.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine would protect calves from infection with virulent BRSV.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—27 nine-week-old calves seronegative for BRSV exposure.

Procedure—Group-1 calves (n = 9) were not vaccinated. Group-2 calves (n = 9) were vaccinated on days 0 and 21 with an inactivated BRSV vaccine containing a minimum immunizing dose of antigen. Group-3 calves (n = 9) were vaccinated on days 0 and 21 with an inactivated BRSV vaccine containing an amount of antigen similar to that in a commercial vaccine. All calves were challenged with virulent BRSV on day 42. Clinical signs and immune responses were monitored for 8 days after challenge. Calves were euthanatized on day 50, and lungs were examined for lesions.

Results—Vaccination elicited increases in BRSV-specific IgG and virus neutralizing antibody titers and in production of interferon-γ. Virus neutralizing antibody titers were consistently less than IgG titers. Challenge with BRSV resulted in severe respiratory tract disease and extensive pulmonary lesions in control calves, whereas vaccinated calves had less severe signs of clinical disease and less extensive pulmonary lesions. The percentage of vaccinated calves that shed virus in nasal secretions was significantly lower than the percentage of control calves that did, and peak viral titer was lower for vaccinated than for control calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the inactivated BRSV vaccine provided clinical protection from experimental infection with virulent virus and decreased the severity of pulmonary lesions. Efficacy was similar to that reported for modified-live BRSV vaccines. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1973–1980)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether porcine genogroup 1 torque teno virus (g1-TTV) can infect and cause disease in gnotobiotic swine.

Sample Population—20 conventional baby pigs and 46 gnotobiotic baby pigs.

Procedures—Porcine g1-TTV was transmitted from conventional swine to gnotobiotic pigs via pooled leukocyte-rich plasmas (n = 18) that had positive results for g1-TTV DNA. Bone marrow–liver homogenates that had positive results for torque teno virus (TTV) were used in 4 serial passages in gnotobiotic pigs (2 pigs/passage). A pathogenesis experiment was conducted with in vivo passages of g1-TTV in various groups of gnotobiotic pigs.

Results—All g1-TTV inoculated pigs had no clinical signs but developed interstitial pneumonia, transient thymic atrophy, membranous glomerulonephropathy, and modest lymphocytic to histiocytic infiltrates in the liver after inoculation with the TTV-containing tissue homogenate; these changes were not detected in uninoculated control pigs or pigs injected with tissue homogenate devoid of TTV DNAs. In situ hybridization was used to identify g1-TTV DNAs in bone marrow mononuclear cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of these data revealed that porcine g1-TTV was readily transmitted to TTV-naïve swine and that infection was associated with characteristic pathologic changes in gnotobiotic pigs inoculated with g1-TTV. Thus, g1-TTV could be an unrecognized pathogenic viral infectious agent of swine. This indicated a directly associated induction of lesions attributable to TTV infection in swine for a virus of the genus Anellovirus.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research