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Animal Health MPCA Minnesota Pollution Control Agency NASS National Agricultural Statistics Service PRRS Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome a. ArcGIS 9.0, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, Calif. b. GeoDa

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

E quine respiratory anatomy and physiology have unique features that contribute to the challenges of general anesthesia in horses. The prominent caudodorsal equine lung fields lie dorsal to a dome-shaped diaphragm in the standing horse. 1 , 2 The

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,2 Positive pressure has been used for many years in veterinary practice to ventilate the lungs, suggesting this technique is safe and feasible. Nevertheless, positive pressure ventilation can be considered a nonphysiologic condition for the respiratory system

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

History In 2013, the annual cost of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) to the US swine industry was estimated to be $664 million 1 ; however, a recent report estimated the current cost of the disease at approximately $1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus is a pneumovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae that is an endemic infection of cattle populations worldwide. 1–3 Similar to its genetically and antigenically related cognate virus in human populations, human

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

(respiratory and metabolic) acidosis. The mean pH TC in blood samples collected on day 1 from survivors was 7.53 in the present study and 7.65 in another study. 9 Homeostatic mechanisms in healthy vertebrates (including sea turtles) maintain relatively

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

treatment interventions before conducting large-scale field trials. ABBREVIATIONS BRD Bovine respiratory disease CT Computed tomography G-K-X Guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine PACS Picture archiving and communicating system CLSI Clinical and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Resistance to infection by respiratory disease viruses involves several aspects of the immune response. Serum virus-neutralizing antibodies are important and are the component of immunity that is most often measured as an indication of resistance

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effect of prior porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) infection on replication of H1N1-influenza virus in the respiratory tract of swine was studied. In an initial experiment, 3 groups of 5 feeder pigs were studied. Pigs of 2 groups were inoculated sequentially with PRCV, followed by H1N1-influenza virus at 2- and 3-day intervals. Pigs of the other group were inoculated with H1N1-influenza virus only. Pigs were monitored clinically and examined for nasal excretion of influenza virus. In the singly influenza virus-inoculated group, 83% of nasal swab specimens were influenza virus-positive over a period of 6 days after inoculation. In the dually virus-inoculated groups, only 27% (2-day interval) and 53% (3-day interval) of nasal swab specimens were virus-positive over the same postinoculation period. However, clinical signs of infection in these dually inoculated pigs were more severe than those in the singly influenza virus-inoculated pigs. There were no significant differences in antibody responses against influenza virus among the 3 groups of pigs.

In a second experiment, 2 groups of pigs were studied. One group of pigs was inoculated sequentially with PRCV, followed by H1N1-influenza virus 2 days later; the other group was inoculated with H1N1-influenza virus only. Pigs of both groups were serially euthanatized on postinoculation days (pid) 1, 2, 3, and 4 (after influenza virus). At necropsy, influenza virus titer and immunofluorescence in lung tissue were determined and gross lung lesions were recorded. Influenza virus titer in the dually inoculated pigs (pid 1 and 2) was at least 100-fold reduced, compared with that in the corresponding singly inocu lated pigs, and fluorescence was either not detected (pid 1) or was scant (pid 2). Differences in influenza virus replication between pigs of dually and singly inoculated groups became gradually less pronounced at pid 3 and 4. Lung lesions in the dually virus-inoculated pigs were distinctly more severe than those in the corresponding singly virus-inoculated pigs, and became progressively more pronounced as time after influenza virus inoculation progressed.

These results indicate that PRCV infection may induce factors in the lungs that markedly interfere with replication and virus production during a subsequent influenza virus infection. On the other hand, clinical signs of infection and lung lesions were enhanced in the dually virus-inoculated pigs. It is believed that early nonspecific defense mechanisms in the lungs may have a role in the host antiviral response, as well as in development of lesions.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

–5 other aspiration-related respiratory disorders exist that are less common, poorly described, or to date unrecognized in dogs but have been characterized in humans. Ultimately, the consequence of aspiration is dependent on both the underlying health of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association