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of disorders and reasons for hospital admission. Glucose is the main source of energy in reptiles as in mammals, 7 and its metabolism is tightly regulated by several hormones. 8 Blood glucose derangements in mammals, both hyperglycemia and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

extracranially into the cervical musculature, as seen in this case. 2 In reptiles, endolymphatic sacs are thought to play a role in calcium metabolism, perhaps acting as a site of storage of calcium carbonate that can be mobilized during egg formation and can be

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

comparable diagnosis rates for laparoscopic and laparotomy-associated liver biopsy procedures, but application of endoscopy has the advantage of decreased duration of hospitalization. In reptile medicine, the diagnostic approach to liver disease is similar

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

for use in reptiles. 1–3 Therefore, application and interpretation of invasive and noninvasive monitoring techniques is in its infancy, which makes diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease and monitoring of anesthesia challenging. Determination of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

temperature, humidity, light cycle, or social changes. 4 Normal follicular development in reptiles involves vitellogenesis or the formation/accumulation of yolk in the liver. 5 Estrogen stimulates the liver to convert lipid found in the body’s fat stores to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

environmental factors, and a variety of bacterial species, such as Aeromonas spp, Pseudomonas spp, Staphylococcus spp, and Morganella spp, may be involved. 3 Fungal dermatitis in reptiles is typically related to compromised host immunity, and infections

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

amphibians, although reports in reptiles are sporadic. 5 , 9 , 10 Mycobacterium marinum is the Mycobacterium species most often isolated from reptiles 7 and is zoonotic. In humans, M marinum is usually localized to the skin and may cause granulomatous

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

; however, gastrointestinal obstruction is relatively common in reptiles and frequently caused by the ingestion of foreign materials such as sand, gravel, and cotton. 5–9 Other reported causes include intestinal neoplasia, impaction with parasites, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Sedation and anesthesia are necessary components of veterinary care for many reptilian species. Unlike many domesticated mammals, captive reptiles frequently require some level of chemical restraint to facilitate safe and thorough examination

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

chameleon. Comments Veiled chameleons are an insectivorous reptile in the family Chamaeleonidae and are native to the southwestern Arabian peninsula. They were first bred in captivity in the 1990s and are now abundant in the pet trade. 5 To the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association