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Abstract

Objective—To report the postoperative outcome in horses undergoing jejunoileal anastomosis performed with a 2-layer simple continuous technique.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—7 horses.

Procedure—Information regarding signalment, clinical signs, findings at surgery, and postoperative complications was obtained from medical records of horses that underwent exploratory ventral midline celiotomy, small intestinal resection, and jejunoileal anastomosis to correct various small intestinal strangulating lesions. Follow-up information was obtained via telephone conversations with owners or trainers.

Results—Six males and 1 female of various breeds aged 10 months to 27 years and weighing 312 to 785 kg (686.4 to 1,727 lb) were included. The most common complications were mild to moderate tachycardia and mild to moderate signs of abdominal pain. Two horses developed incisional infections and soft, fluctuant swelling at the incision site following resolution of the infection. Follow-up time ranged from 7 to 17 months after surgery. Owners reported no further colic episodes and no diet change necessary following surgery. All horses had returned to their intended level of use.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Advantages to the jejunoileal technique include maintaining the normal ileocecal valve and a postoperative recovery period similar to that described following other small intestinal anastomoses. Jejunoileal anastomosis is a viable alternative to ileal bypass. This technique appears to result in a postoperative complication rate similar to that reported following jejunojejunostomy procedures. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:541–545)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 12-year-old obese spayed female American Staffordshire Terrier was admitted for evaluation of acute non–weight-bearing lameness of the right pelvic limb attributed to motor vehicle–related trauma that occurred 2 hours previously. The owners reported a chronic, progressive weight-bearing lameness of the right pelvic limb secondary to a complete cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture that was diagnosed 6 months previously. They had declined surgery for CrCL repair because of the advanced age of the dog.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a 2-cm skin wound on the craniomedial aspect of the midtibial region. The dog had non–weight-bearing lameness of the right pelvic limb with associated muscle atrophy and signs of pain on palpation of the right tibia. Radiography was performed, and tibial and fibular fractures were diagnosed. The fractures were classified as second-degree open, severely comminuted, complex nonreconstructible diaphyseal fractures.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The tibial fracture and CrCL rupture were treated by closed reduction and simultaneous tibial plateau leveling by indirect fluoroscopic-guided alignment, plus stabilization with a monoplanar external fixator. The 2 main tibial fragments were manipulated via the frame clamps to restore limb length and alignment and tibial plateau slope. Both the tibial and fibular fractures healed within 16 weeks after surgery. At the 2-month recheck examination after implant removal, the dog was walking normally.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Simultaneous treatment of tibial fracture and CrCL rupture with unilateral external fixation was successful in this dog and may be helpful in similar cases.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 4-year-old spayed female French Bulldog was referred for treatment of a suspected right-sided nasal angiofibroma associated with a 4-month history of unilateral nasal discharge and stertor.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The dog appeared healthy other than right-sided mucoid debris and decreased airflow through the right naris. The dog was anesthetized, and a large intranasal mass was observed obstructing the right nasal passage and abutting the nasal septum.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

A lateral rhinotomy was performed, and rigid endoscopes (0° and 30°) were used to examine the right nasal cavity. The mass filled the anterior aspect of the nasal cavity and involved a portion of the nasal turbinates with some erosion. A coblation unit was used to ablate tumor tissue laterally to remove the tumor in piecemeal fashion. Recovery was routine with only minor epistaxis after surgery, and the dog was discharged the next day. Eight months after surgery, follow-up CT revealed right-sided nasal turbinate and conchal atrophy consistent with prior mass ablation. No macroscopic recurrence was detected, and the owners reported only rare, clear rhinorrhea.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that coblation may be an alternative to radiation therapy for vascular tumors with minimal invasion and low metastatic potential.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-month-old neutered male Golden Retriever was evaluated because of moderate stridor, exercise intolerance, and dyspnea. The dog had been neutered 3 weeks previously, and the referring veterinarian identified a large fluid-filled swelling on the left lateral aspect of the larynx during anesthetic intubation for that surgery. The referring veterinarian drained fluid from the mass by use of needle centesis via the oral cavity, which resulted in temporary improvement in clinical signs; however, the clinical signs returned soon thereafter.

Clinical Findings—A large, soft, spherical mass was located between the left arytenoid and thyroid cartilages and axial to the left ceratohyoid bone, thus causing partial obstruction of the rima glottidis. Laryngoscopic examination, computed tomography (CT), and cytologic evaluation of aspirates performed before surgery; examination during surgery; and histologic evaluation of tissues following surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis of a laryngeal cyst.

Treatment and Outcome—Complete surgical excision was successfully performed via a lateral extraluminal approach to the larynx. One week after surgery, the dog coughed only occasionally. Twelve months after surgery, the owner reported that the dog was clinically normal with no recurrence of clinical signs, and laryngoscopic examination revealed no recurrence of the cyst or other pathological changes in the laryngeal region.

Clinical Relevance—Congenital laryngeal cysts are rarely reported in domestic animals. The information provided here described the CT appearance of a laryngeal cyst and the use of CT in diagnosis and surgical planning. Congenital laryngeal cysts can be resected via a lateral submucosal approach.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of thrombophlebitis of 1 or both jugular veins on athletic performance of horses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—91 horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis.

Procedures—Medical records of horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis examined between 1988 and 2005 were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment. Performance was evaluated in 2 ways. A questionnaire was used to obtain a subjective assessment from the owner or trainer of the horse's performance after thrombophlebitis, compared with the performance before thrombophlebitis. Racing records from before and after thrombophlebitis were also evaluated.

Results—Thrombophlebitis was diagnosed in 37 horses at the time of admission (group 1), and 54 horses developed thrombophlebitis during hospitalization for an unrelated medical condition (group 2). Twenty-seven of 81 (33%) owners answered the questionnaire, and racing records were available for 31 horses. Performance data were available for 48 horses. Owners reported that all nonracing horses, except 1, had equivalent or better performances after discharge. Twenty-six of 31 (84%) Standardbreds resumed racing; in these horses, there was no significant difference between racing times before and after thrombophlebitis. No significant difference in performance was detected regardless of the primary disease, whether a horse had unilateral or bilateral thrombophlebitis, or the treatment administered.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the athletic performance of horses used for nonracing events was not affected by thrombophlebitis. Thrombophlebitis in racing Standardbreds was associated with a decreased chance of return to racing; however, performance was not impaired in those that resumed racing.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A study was conducted to provide baseline data on pet dog diet and exercise patterns. In addition, the repeatability of a telephone questionnaire to determine these patterns was evaluated. Dogs seen at the Texas Veterinary Medical Center that, were less than 3 years old and of medium, large, or giant purebreeds or mixed-breeds were included. Information was collated about background variables, brands, quantities, and types of foods fed, and types and frequency of exercise. Daily intake of metabolizabk energy, calcium, fat, and protein were calculated from the diet. Sixty-nine dog owners completed the study. Most dogs were kept as pels in an urban/suburban environment Most were also fed diy food. About 60% were fed dog biscuits or some other dog snack or treat, and about half of the dogs in the study were Jed twice daily. Meat scraps and bones were the table foods most commonly fed. Most owners considered their dogs to be moderately or very active. Greater than 70% of the dogs were confined to a fenced yard. About 65% of the owners took their dogs for walks, forty percent of dogs in the study exercised with other dogs daily. More than half of the owners reported playing retrieving games with their dogs, including playing with a flying disk. The questionnaire was shown to be repeatable.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

The epizootic of rabies in raccoons in Maryland has been accompanied by 129 confirmed cases of rabies in cats from Jan 1, 1983 to Sept 30, 1992 and only 12 cases in dogs. An epidemiologic and clinical study of rabies in cats was conducted for the period Jan 1, 1983 to May 31, 1986. Only 3 of 31 rabid cats had a history of being currently vaccinated against rabies, and 13 were of unknown ownership. A history of prior wound or injury within 6 months of onset of signs of rabies was reported in 11 of the cats and most of these had a wound in a hind limb. The median interval between reporting of a wound and a development of rabies was 4 to 6 weeks.

Rabies in cats is difficult to diagnose in the early stages and, of the 14 cats examined by a veterinarian, only 3 were believed to have rabies on initial examination. Major signs of rabies in cats reported by veterinarians included behavior change, gait abnormality, strange or unusual look in the eyes, and a wound within the preceding 6 months. Owners reported increased frequency of vocalization as an early sign. Postexposure treatment was given to 194 human beings including 63 veterinarians or their personnel. The estimated cost of postexposure biologics was $68,000.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Twenty-nine pruritic, atopic dogs were entered into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy of an investigational antiallergenic compound, AHR-13268. Fourteen dogs were evaluated by a veterinary dermatologist (at intervals) and the owner (daily). Fifteen dogs were evaluated only by the owner. The mean (± se) owner scores for pruritus, erythema, and lesions with placebo treatment (higher score = worse signs) were 3.24 (± 0.12), 2.73 (± 0.12), and 2.61 (± 0.09), respectively. With drug treatment, the corresponding scores were 2.89 (± 0.12), 2.50 (± 0.12), and 2.25 (± 0.09). Scores for pruritus and lesions (but not erythema) were significantly better with drug treatment than with placebo treatment. Investigator scores showed similar trends, but the differences were not great enough to be statistically significant. Overall, 11/29 (38%) owners reported their dogs had moderate or better improvement from drug capsules, and 4/29 dogs (14%) improved on placebo capsules A variety of adverse effects were reported following both drug (9/29 dogs) and placebo (8/29 dogs) capsule administration, but were mild and well tolerated. Results of this study indicate that AHR-13268 has potential for empiric treatment of allergic inhalant dermatitis in some dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Using a 1-stage random-digit dial telephone survey, we estimated the number of pet dogs and cats and cancer case ascertainment in the principal catchment area of an animal tumor registry in Indiana, the Purdue Comparative Oncology Program (PCOP). These findings will assist in the estimation of pet cancer incidence rates for the PCOP. The estimated canine and feline populations for Marion County were 144,039 (95% confidence interval, 121,555 to 166,523) and 94,998 (74,384 to 115,648), respectively. For Tippecanoe County (excluding university housing residences), the estimated canine population was 18,000 (14,445 to 21,555), whereas the estimated feline population was 17,165 (12,569 to 21,761). The estimated cancer case ascertainment was 88.3% (dogs, 92.5%; cats, 83.0%) with no statistically significant difference in the estimated ascertainment by county of residence or by species of pet. The amount that owners report themselves willing to pay for treatment of cancer in dogs or cats, however, differed in counties polled. This method's appropriateness for estimating pet populations in general and the validity of the data gathered were supported by response rate of 88.0% and by concurrence with census data for household characteristics previously documented to be associated with pet dog and cat ownership.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Between May 1980 and May 1987, intertrochanteric osteotomy was performed on 43 hips of 37 dogs (6 bilateral procedures) with early-stage hip dysplasia, with the objectives of improving hip biomechanics and reducing discomfort. Clinical evaluation consisted of: questionnaire, and/or orthopedic examination, and/or report from owner(s) via telephone. At least 1 form of evaluation was conducted for 42 of 43 hips (98%). On the basis of orthopedic examination findings, 27 of 33 hips (84%) were functionally good or normal at postoperative month 15 (on average). On the basis of owner report, 19 of 28 hips (68%) were functionally good or normal at postoperative month 11 (on average). On the basis of questionnaire data, 17 of 24 hips (70%) were functionally good or normal at postoperative year 1. Before surgery, only 11 of 37 hips (30%) had been evaluated as functionally good or normal. Of 36 owners, 33 (91.6%) reported that they would have the procedure performed again if the circumstances were the same. From the good to excellent clinical results, we concluded that intertrochanteric osteotomy is a beneficial treatment for dogs with early-stage hip dysplasia.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association