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orthopedic examination. The severity of lameness may vary from none to marked, and the response to intra-articular anesthesia varies among horses. 10 However, in many young horses with osteochondrosis, a radiographic diagnosis of subclinical or occult

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

unexpected. The healthy control dogs used in the study were screened on the basis of a client questionnaire, evaluation of serum biochemical values, and results of liver function testing. However, the possibility of occult histologic liver disease cannot be

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intravascular blood volume or hemorrhage, is the most common form of shock presenting to the emergency room. 1 In occult circumstances, it is one of the more difficult forms of shock to identify due to physiologic compensatory mechanisms that mask typical

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

progressive polyarthritis in a female cat . J Vet Med Sci 2010 ; 72 : 511 – 514 . 10.1292/jvms.09-0261 10. Naschitz JE . Rheumatic syndromes: clues to occult neoplasia . Semin Arthritis Rheum 1999 ; 29 : 43 – 55 . 10.1016/S0049

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ventricular arrhythmias, which is the typical defining characteristic of ARVC. We recognize that patients with the occult stage of ARVC may not have ventricular arrhythmias on baseline ECG and that some patients with ARVC may have echocardiographic findings of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

infectious myocarditis, but this was considered unlikely given the lack of infectious agents in the local area and the dog's lack of recent travel history. Occult cardiomyopathy was also possible. Footnotes a. Pagewriter TC70, Philips, Markham, ON

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and extensive, complete excision is usually not possible. Even when cutaneous lesions may be resectable, the presence of occult lesions in the thorax or abdomen may make surgery futile. In addition, medical treatment has limited usefulness for the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

myocardium. 1–4 Affected dogs may have syncope or signs associated with congestive heart failure. However, many dogs die of sudden cardiac death without ever having any clinical signs. Screening for the occult form of the disease may be performed with a 24

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

studies 10,11 , b,c by use of recalcified citrated whole blood as well as tissue factor– and kaolin–activated whole blood. Cats in those studies were judged healthy through physical examination and routine blood testing but were not screened for occult

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

external ophthalmoplegia (ptosis), and decreased ocular menace reflex included a congenital or traumatic anatomic anomaly affecting the right cranial nerves II, III, or VII; occult mass; or foreign body obstruction. An additional differential diagnosis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association