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Abstract

Objective

To determine functional responses of neonatal chicken and turkey heterophils to various inflammatory agonists.

Animals

100 one-day-old chickens and turkeys.

Procedure

Blood heterophils were isolated and stimulated for 30 minutes at 39 C with ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), opsonized zymosan (OZ), or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). Functional responses (shape change, adherence, phagocytosis, influx of intracellular calcium, and oxidative burst) of stimulated heterophils were measured and compared with responses of unstimulated (control) heterophils.

Results

Turkey and chicken heterophils did not respond to FMLP stimulation. Stimulation of chicken and turkey heterophils with ionomycin resulted in significant increases in adherence, percentage of cells with a shape change, phagocytosis, intracellular calcium concentration, and oxidative burst. Turkey heterophils did not respond to PMA stimulation, whereas stimulation of chicken heterophils with PMA resulted in significant increases in adherence, percentage of cells with a shape change, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst but not intracellular calcium concentration. Stimulation of chicken and turkey heterophils with OZ resulted in significant increases in oxidative burst.

Conclusions

Mechanisms regulating initiation of heterophil activation in neonatal chicken and turkey heterophils are consistent with those described for heterophils isolated from mature birds. The biochemical and cytoskeletal systems of neonatal avian heterophils undergo functional alterations following stimulation with inflammatory agonists.

Clinical Relevance

Understanding heterophil activation and regulation should eventually lead to methods for controlling bacterial diseases in poultry. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1404–1408)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine intragastric pH in newborn foals and to examine the effect of IV or oral administration of an H2-receptor antagonist on intragastric pH.

Design

Prospective controlled study.

Animals

6 healthy mixed-breed neonatal foals.

Procedure

Intragastric pH was measured, using an antimony electrode. Foals were monitored on days 2, 4, and 6 after birth, and each received 3 treatments. The pH was recorded for 4 hours before treatment and for 10 hours after ranitidine administration (2 mg/kg [0.91 mg/lb] of body weight, IV; 6.6 mg/kg [3 mg/lb PO) or 20 hours after corn syrup administration. Mean and median pH and percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 were calculated.

Results

Mean intragastric pH significantly increased for 5 hours after IV administration of ranitidine, compared with baseline data. Percentage of time intragastric pH was ≥ 4 increased significantly for 4 hours after ranitidine administration, and median pH increased significantly for hours 2 to 4 after administration. Oral administration of ranitidine significantly increased mean and median pH for hours 2 to 8 after administration and percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 for hours 2 to 7 after administration.

Clinical Implications

Neonatal foals have highly acidic gastric fluid. Intravenous or oral administration of ranitidine significantly increased intragastric pH for 4 and 8 hours, respectively. Suckling affected intragastric pH and underscored the need for frequent feeding of neonatal foals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:1407–1412)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate effectiveness of an allicin-based product in neonatal calves inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum.

Design

Randomized controlled study.

Animals

43 neonatal calves.

Procedure

Calves were inoculated with 1.5 × l06 or 7.5 × 105 C parvum oocysts within 2 days after birth. Calves were given an allicin-based product once after inoculation or daily for 7 days after inoculation or were not treated. Calves that developed diarrhea were treated by administration of the product. Fecal consistency scores and weight gains were statistically evaluated.

Results

Mean daily weight gain and severity of diarrhea in calves 4 to 21 days old were unaffected by prophylactic use of the product. However, intensive prophylactic administration may have delayed onset of C parvum-induced diarrhea in calves inoculated with the lower dose of oocysts.

Clinical Implications

Administration of an allicin-based product did not alter duration of C parvum-induced diarrhea or enhance weight gain in neonatal calves. However, intensive prophylactic administration of an allicin-based product may delay onset of diarrhea in calves exposed to C parvum oocysts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:987–990)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of various environmental temperatures (ET) on the ability of neonatal pigs to cope with an endotoxin challenge.

Animals—28 crossbred male pigs that were 24 hours old.

Procedure—At 24 hours of age, pigs were placed in environmentally controlled chambers maintained at 18 or 34 C (14 pigs/ET). Rectal temperatures (RT) were recorded at 15-minute intervals for 3 hours following an IP injection of 0.9% NaCl (7 control pigs/ET) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 µg/kg of body weight; 7 LPS-treated pigs/ET). Tissue specimens and blood samples were collected following the 3-hour challenge period.

Results—LPS-treated pigs exposed to 18 C had a period of hypothermia whereas RT for LPS-treated pigs at 34 C did not differ from control pigs. The LPS-treated pigs maintained at 18 C lost the most body weight during the 3-hour period and also had the greatest increase in serum cortisol concentration. Serum prolactin (PRL) concentration was decreased in pigs at 18 C, compared with pigs at 34 C. Challenge with LPS resulted in an increase in serum PRL concentration at 18 C but had no effect on serum PRL at 34 C. Challenge with LPS resulted in an increase in expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- 1 beta, and interleukin-6 receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to a cold ET can inhibit the ability of neonatal pigs to cope with an exogenous endotoxin challenge. When combined, cold stress and exposure to exogenous endotoxin induces a rapid and potentially dangerous loss of body temperature in neonatal pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:561–566)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine disposition kinetics of amikacin in neonatal foals administered high doses at extended intervals.

Animals—7 neonatal foals.

Procedure—Amikacin was administered (21 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 10 days. On days 1, 5, and 10, serial plasma samples were obtained for measurement of amikacin concentrations and determination of pharmacokinetics.

Results—Mean ± SD peak plasma concentrations of amikacin extrapolated to time 0 were 103.1 ± 23.4, 102.9 ± 9.8, and 120.7 ± 17.9 µg/mL on days 1, 5, and 10, respectively. Plasma concentrations at 1 hour were 37.5 ± 6.7, 32.9 ± 2.6, and 30.6 ± 3.5 µg/mL; area under the curve (AUC) was 293.0 ± 61.0, 202.3 ± 40.4, and 180.9 ± 31.2 (µg · h)/mL; elimination half-life (t1/2β) was 5.33, 4.08, and 3.85 hours; and clearance was 1.3 ± 0.3, 1.8 ± 0.4, and 2.0 ± 0.3 mL/(min · kg), respectively. There were significant increases in clearance and decreases in t1/2β, AUC, mean residence time, and plasma concentrations of amikacin at 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours as foals matured.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Once-daily administration of high doses of amikacin to foals resulted in high peak plasma amikacin concentrations, high 1-hour peak concentrations, and large values for AUC, consistent with potentially enhanced bactericidal activity. Age-related findings suggested maturation of renal function during the first 10 days after birth, reflected in enhanced clearance of amikacin. High-dose, extended-interval dosing regimens of amikacin in neonatal foals appear rational, although clinical use remains to be confirmed. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:473–479)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate effects of thermal environment on response to acute peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge exposure in neonatal pigs.

Animals

26 neonatal pigs.

Procedure

Pigs were assigned to the following treatment groups: 1 warm environment/LPS; 2 warm environment/saline solution; 3 cool environment/LPS; and 4 cool environment/saline solution. For each pig given LPS. 1 littermate of the same sex was given saline solution. Sows with baby pigs were housed in a warm (32 C) or cool (21 C) thermal environment. At 28 days of age, pigs were given 150 µg/kg of body weight of Escherichia coli LPS or saline solution intraperitoneally as a control. Rectal temperature and signs of sickness were monitored for 3 hours after LPS administration, when pigs were euthanatized and blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and cortisol. To determine in vitro production of TNFα, alveolar macrophages were collected by tracheal lavage and incubated for 24 hours at 37 or 41 C, with or without LPS (10 µg/ml).

Results

Thermal environment had a significant (P = 0.0004) effect on rectal temperature; LPS administration induced a febrile response (P = 0.0007) only in pigs in the warm environment. All LPS-injected pigs developed signs of endotoxemia; serum TNFα and cortisol concentrations were significantly increased (TNFα, P = 0.003; cortisol, P = 0.0001); there was no significant in vivo thermal effect on serum TNFα and cortisol concentrations. LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages produced significantly less (P = 0.0086) TNFα when incubated at 41 C.

Conclusions

Thermal environment can have a significant impact on the response of neonatal pigs exposed to bacterial endotoxins. (Am J Vet Res 1997; 58:364-369)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection causes severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and calves. Neonatal respiratory tract infection in children often produces persistent changes in lung function. The specific objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal calves have transient or persistent alterations in pulmonary function and airway reactivity following rsv infection. Six 2- to 3-day-old Holstein bull calves were inoculated with 10 ml of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) inoculum (102.7 to 103.8 cell culture infective doses/ml) intranasally and 10 ml of brsv inoculum (104.8 to 105.9 cell culture infective doses/ml) intratracheally for 4 consecutive days, and 5 other calves were sham-inoculated. Prior to inoculation (day 0) and on days 4, 14, and 30 after the last inoculation, body weight (kg), dynamic compliance (Cdyn), pulmonary resistance (RL), and 2 indices of airway reactivity (effective dose [ed] 65Cdyn and ed 200RL) were measured. Control calves gained weight progressively throughout the study, whereas rsv-inoculated calves failed to gain weight for 14 days, but equaled control calf weight by 30 days after inoculation. The Cdyn of control calves increased significantly by 30 days, but did not in the rsv-infected calves. Pulmonary resistance was increased significantly at 4, 14, and 30 days, but was unaffected by sham inoculation. The ed 65Cdyn and ed 200RL indicated an age-dependent increase in reactivity to histamine and an increase in responsiveness in the infected group beginning at 14 days and persisting until the end of the study. The data indicate that brsv causes airway obstruction and hyperreactivity in neonatal calves, which persists for at least 30 days following viral exposure.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate precolostral hypogammaglobulinemia in neonatal llamas and alpacas, to determine when postcolostral peak serum IgG concentrations develop, to determine whether differences in postcolostral serum IgG concentrations between llamas and alpacas exist, and to determine postcolostral half-life of serum IgG in llamas and alpacas.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—29 llama and 10 alpaca crias.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected prior to suckling and on days 1, 2, and 3 after parturition and analyzed for serum IgG concentration by use of a commercial radial immunodiffusion assay. Additional samples were collected on days 8, 13, and 18 from 8 crias to determine mean half-life of IgG.

Results—Llamas and alpacas are born severely hypogammaglobulinemic. Mean serum IgG concentrations for day-1, -2, and -3 samples for llamas were 1,578 mg/dl, 1,579 mg/dl, and 1,401 mg/dl, respectively, and for alpacas were 2,024 mg/dl, 1,806 mg/dl, and 1,669 mg/dl, respectively. Peak serum immunoglobulin concentration developed between days 1 and 2. Mean half-life of IgG for all crias was 15.7 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although increased mortality has been linked to failure of passive transfer, it is clearly possible to raise crias that have low serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Llamas and alpacas do not differ significantly with respect to immunoglobulin absorption or IgG concentration in neonates. The optimal sampling time for passive transfer status is between 1 and 2 days. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:738–741)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To develop accurate, objective guidelines for assessing hydration status of neonatal calves with diarrhea.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

15 male dairy calves 3 to 10 days old.

Procedure

Dehydration and diarrhea were induced by administration of diuretic agents (ie, furosemide, spironolactone, hydrochlorothiazide) and sucrose solution. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between potentially useful factors for evaluating hydration status (extent of enophthalmos; skin-tent duration on neck, thorax, and upper and lower eyelids; heart rate; mean central venous pressure; peripheral [extremity] and core [rectal] temperatures; core-peripheral [rectal-extremity] temperature difference; PCV; and hemoglobin and plasma protein concentrations) and degree of dehydration, as determined by change in body weight.

Results

Best predictors of degree of dehydration were extent of enophthalmos, skin elasticity on neck and thorax, and plasma protein concentration.

Clinical Implications

These experimentally determined guidelines provide practitioners with a simple, inexpensive, and practical method for evaluating hydration status of neonatal calves with diarrhea. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:991–996)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Intracranial pressure (icp) and cerebral perfusion pressure (cpp) were determined in 8 clinically normal neonatal foals. After the foals oriented themselves and nursed the mares, they were sedated as necessary, and local anesthesia was provided for making the skin incisions. Using a technique similar to that used in human beings, an indwelling subdural catheter was placed to measure icp. Carotid artery catheterization was used to measure arterial blood pressure. Cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated as the difference between mean arterial blood pressure and icp.

Intracranial pressure and cpp readings were taken twice during each 24-hour period, starting at 6 hours of age and continuing through 72 hours of age. Mean (± sd) icp were 5.83 ± 1.82, 8.81 ± 2.06, and 9.55 ± 1.55 mm of Hg (range, 2 to 15 mm of Hg), and mean cpp were 80.19 ± 10.34, 75.30 ± 10.86, and 76.80 ± 12.59 mm of Hg (range, 50 to 109 mm of Hg) for each of the first three 24-hour periods after birth, respectively. All 8 foals had physical and neurologic examinations, csf analysis, and computerized axial tomography evaluations. The foals manifested normal behavior during the interval of measurements, and adverse effects of the procedure were not detected during the monitoring period. Establishment of normal values for icp and cpp are important to clinicians who have the opportunity to apply this technique for monitoring and evaluating neonatal foals with signs of cns dysfunction.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research