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); there was moderate eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle with decreased systolic function, severe left atrial enlargement, subjective eccentric hypertrophy of the right ventricle with poor systolic function, and subjective mild enlargement of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, < 2.5 mV) despite echocardiographic evidence of a large left ventricle. Each QRS complex was preceded by a P wave, and each P wave appeared to be succeeded by a QRS complex. An initial assessment of sinus tachycardia was made. A vagal maneuver (ie

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle, with a narrowed ventricular lumen. The left atrioventricular valve exhibited gross changes consistent with mild multifocal endocardiosis. Other macroscopic findings included moderate pulmonary edema and congestion

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

underlying this method is that total left ventricle volume is calculated from the summation of a stack of elliptical disks. The left ventricle volumes were measured from an apical 4-chamber view, tracing the left ventricle diastolic and systolic endocardial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

monocytosis. Serum thyroxine concentration was low (0.6 μg/dL; reference range, 0.8 to 4.0 μg/dL). Echocardiography revealed a severely dilated left ventricle with poor systolic function. Mild right ventricular and right atrial dilation were present. Mild

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the right ventricle is larger than the left ventricle (B), indicating right-sided heart enlargement. The scale along the left angle of each echocardiographic image is in centimeters. The ECG (B) shows atrial fibrillation. LA = Left atrium. LV = Left

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of the main pulmonary artery. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed mild to moderate dilation of the left ventricle, severe concentric hypertrophy of the right ventricle, and severe dilation of the main pulmonary artery. There was moderate

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

anesthesia), leading to an overall lowered heart rate. The arrhythmic mechanism is thought to be related to inappropriate sympathetic innervation to the left ventricle and delayed repolarization of the left ventricle secondary to abnormalities in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

be secondary to some cases of mitral stenosis. Systolic mitral regurgitation, or leakage of blood from the left ventricle back into the left atrium due to poor connection between the mitral valve leaflets, can be caused by several pathological

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the mPA, and considerable enlargement of the ductus arteriosus (wide arrow). The ECG shows sinus rhythm with a deep S-wave. Ao = Aorta. LV = Left ventricle. V = Ventral. On the basis of findings, primary or secondary erythrocytosis was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association