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-Head et al 11 and Hood et al 12 independently determined that this hypoperfusion was accompanied by decreased oxygen delivery to the digital tissues and decreased hoof wall surface temperature, respectively. However, Pollitt et al 13 failed to detect

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Equine digital laminae span between the surface of the distal phalanx and the inner hoof wall. Laminae are composed of 500 to 600 vertical folds of keratinized epidermal tissue (the primary epidermal laminae), which are contiguous with the inner

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

presence of white line separation as a prerequisite for TTN seems logical. The white line is an inherently weak junction of the hoof wall and sole and is composed primarily of laminar horn produced by the laminar corium. Laminar horn undergoes suboptimal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

or equine metabolic syndrome. 10–12 The laminar region of the hoof in equids holds the distal phalanx and the hoof wall together; it consists of epidermis connected to underlying dermis by a basement membrane. The surface area of this dermal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

horses to remain free of lameness. 1 Horse owners and trainers have used HBs to maintain their horses’ bare feet and protect the hooves and soles during daily exercise. 1 Also, some clinicians recommend the use of HBs for horses with hoof wall defects

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

diagnostic algorithm ( Figure 1 ). The causes of lameness included in the algorithm were foot rot, digital dermatitis (hairy heel wart), laceration of the foot or hoof wall, laminitis, septic joint or deep digital sepsis, sole ulcer or abscess, toe ulcer or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the cannon bone, the pastern, and the hoof wall of the right forelimb and the right hindlimb ( Figure 1 ) . Figure 1 Inertial motor sensor units (IMUs) placement for data collection. 1: Withers, 2: Thoracolumbar junction (T18), 3: Tuber sacrale

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, analgesics, thiamine, and vitamin E with selenium. Eleven sheep were euthanized, and 1 died; 3 pigs were euthanized, and 2 died. Reasons for euthanasia of sheep included severe laminitis characterized by coronary band separation and sloughing of the hoof wall

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the distal phalanx and the dorsal hoof wall was ranging from −3.5° to 4.0°, with an average angle of 0.02°. The distance from the medial to the lateral fovea of the first phalanx ranged from 55.4 to 79.6 mm and was on average 62.3 mm in group L and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

health examination and a hoof examination, including 11 traits of hoof shape and hoof wall quality, scored from 0 (not affected) to 3 (severely affected), and the sum (HHS), representing the number and severity of clinical findings, was calculated. The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association