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Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VE) administration in late pregnancy on Se status, plasma immunoglobulin concentrations, and colostrum and milk production of dairy cows, and on Se status, passive immunity, and growth of their offspring.

Animals

25 Holstein cows and their offspring.

Procedure

3 and 1.5 weeks before calving, sodium selenite (5 mg/100 kg of body weight) and d, l-α-tocopheryl acetate (25 IU/100 kg) were administered to 13 cows. The other 12 cows were not treated. Se status was assessed by measurement of glutathione peroxidase activity of erythrocytes (GSH-Px-E).

Results

The 13 treated cows had higher (P < 0.01) GSH-Px-E values at calving and during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Changes in plasma immunoglobulin concentrations before or after calving did not differ between the 2 groups of cows. During the first 36 hours after calving (4 milkings), treated cows produced 22% more colostrum than did their nontreated counterparts (P < 0.005). Percentages of colostral immunoglobulins did not differ between the 2 groups. During the first 12 weeks of lactation, treated cows produced 10% more milk than did nontreated cows (P < 0.005). GSH-Px-E values at birth and 28 days of life were significantly higher in calves from treated cows. Plasma immunoglobulin concentrations and body weight during the first 56 days after birth did not differ between calves born to treated or non-treated cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Cows given Se and VE in late pregnancy produce large quantities of colostrum and milk. Colostrum produced from cows given Se and VE is suitable to feed newborn calves and to be stored for later use. Improvement of Se status in calves born to cows given Se and VE in late pregnancy is not beneficial to passive immunity and growth. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1776–1780)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

One hundred fifty Se-deficient, pregnant, crossbred beef cows were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: group A, Se-deficient control; group B, 1 Se bolus at 0 and 119 days; group C, 1 Se bolus at 0 days; and group D, 2 Se pellets at 0 days. The Se bolus is an osmotic pump designed to release 3 mg of Se/d into the reticulorumen. The Se pellets weigh approximately 30 g and contain 10% elemental Se, which is liberated in the reticulorumen. The Se bolus is designed to provide Se supplementation for 120 days and the Se pellets provide supplementation for up to 18 months. Cattle were maintained on Se-deficient pasture or forages prepared from these pastures for the duration of the experiment.

Blood samples were collected from cows prior to treatment (time 0) and at 28, 52, 119, and 220 days thereafter and analyzed for blood Se (BSe) concentration. Body weights were recorded at each sampling time. Blood Se concentration of cows from all supplemented groups were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than control values at all sample dates after treatments began. By the end of the 220-day study, treatment group-B cattle had significantly (P < 0.01) higher BSe concentrations than any other group. Body weights of treatment groups fluctuated throughout the study, but did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. One cow and 6 calves born to cows during the experimental period died. Necropsy of 5 calves provided no evidence linking these deaths to treatments. A difference (P > 0.05) in mortality between groups was not detected.

Blood samples were collected from calves prior to suckling, and were analyzed for BSe concentration. Colostrum samples were collected from dams and analyzed for total Se concentration. Additional blood samples were collected from calves 24 to 48 hours after suckling and analyzed for BSe concentration and serum creatine kinase activity. Birth weight, gender, and health were recorded for all calves. Calves from cows in Se-supplemented groups had significantly (P < 0.001) higher BSe concentrations, both before and after suckling, than did controls. Postsuckle BSe concentrations within the groups of calves were not significantly (P > 0.05) different than presuckle BSe concentrations for any of the groups. Selenium concentrations in colostrum from Se-supplemented cows were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than from control cows. A difference (P > 0.05) was not determined in serum creatine kinase activities or birth weights between groups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Increased risk for morbidity and death, reduced growth rate, and decreased milk production and survival in the first lactation have been described in dairy calves that fail to ingest and absorb adequate colostral immunoglobulins. 1–6 The method

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Five newborn isolation-reared colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated orally and intranasally when they were 20 to 30 hours old and challenge exposed when they were 21 days old with a suspension of virulent bovine coronavirus (bcv). Blood, feces, nasal swabs, tears, saliva, and bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) fluids were collected from each calf prior to inoculation and then weekly for 5 postinoculation weeks. An elisa was used to quantitate the immunoglobulin isotype titers of bcv antibodies in all samples, An immunoblot assay was used to determine the antibody isotype responses to bcv structural proteins in all the samples, except saliva.

At postinoculation days 2 to 3, all calves had severe watery diarrhea, shed bcv in their feces, and had evidence of bcv replication in their upper respiratory tract. After challenge exposure, no calves became ill and no evidence of bcv replication in the respiratory or intestinal tracts was detected. At postinoculation week 1, IgM responses to the N protein were seen in mucosal secretions (except nasal fluid) and feces. At postinoculation weeks 2 and 3, IgA was predominant in mucosal secretions and feces directed toward all the bcv proteins (except the E2 protein in bal fluid). After challenge exposure, an increase (or failure to decrease) in most IgA and some IgG1 titers to bcv proteins was seen. The increases in IgA titers were to all viral proteins in all mucosal secretions and feces, except to the N and E1 viral proteins in feces. The IgGl titer increases were to the E2 proteins in tears and bal fluid and to the E3 protein in bal fluid. In serum, IgM to the N and E3 proteins appeared first, followed by IgGl to mainly the N and E2 proteins, and then more moderate and slower IgG2 and IgA responses. Challenge exposure resulted in an increase (or failure to decrease) in IgGl reactions to all bcv proteins; in IgG2 reactions to E2 and E3 proteins; in IgA reactions to E1, E2, and E3 proteins; and IgM reactions to the N protein only. The N protein elicited the greatest antibody responses, followed by the E2 and E3 proteins, and least by the E1 protein in serum, feces, or mucosal secretions. The E1 and E2 proteins elicited no detectable IgM responses in serum or mucosal secretions.

Our findings indicate that there may be local antibody production at mucosal sites of viral replication, as well as antibody production at associated systemic sites resulting in serum antibodies. Immunoglobulin A antibodies on mucosal surfaces to some or all of the bcv proteins may be important in protection from bcv reinfection.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Failure of passive transfer of immunity in cats is defined as inadequate transfer of colostral immunoglobulin from queen to kitten on the day of birth. This may occur because of queen-related factors, such as poor colostrum quality, inadequate

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate precolostral hypogammaglobulinemia in neonatal llamas and alpacas, to determine when postcolostral peak serum IgG concentrations develop, to determine whether differences in postcolostral serum IgG concentrations between llamas and alpacas exist, and to determine postcolostral half-life of serum IgG in llamas and alpacas.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—29 llama and 10 alpaca crias.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected prior to suckling and on days 1, 2, and 3 after parturition and analyzed for serum IgG concentration by use of a commercial radial immunodiffusion assay. Additional samples were collected on days 8, 13, and 18 from 8 crias to determine mean half-life of IgG.

Results—Llamas and alpacas are born severely hypogammaglobulinemic. Mean serum IgG concentrations for day-1, -2, and -3 samples for llamas were 1,578 mg/dl, 1,579 mg/dl, and 1,401 mg/dl, respectively, and for alpacas were 2,024 mg/dl, 1,806 mg/dl, and 1,669 mg/dl, respectively. Peak serum immunoglobulin concentration developed between days 1 and 2. Mean half-life of IgG for all crias was 15.7 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although increased mortality has been linked to failure of passive transfer, it is clearly possible to raise crias that have low serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Llamas and alpacas do not differ significantly with respect to immunoglobulin absorption or IgG concentration in neonates. The optimal sampling time for passive transfer status is between 1 and 2 days. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:738–741)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To examine the ability of several commonly used tests for evaluation of passive transfer of immunoglobulin to predict mortality in dairy replacement heifers.

Design

Prospective observational study.

Animals

246 dairy replacement heifers between 1 and 8 days of age.

Procedure

Using serum samples obtained from each calf, total serum protein concentration and results of zinc sulfate turbidity, sodium sulfite turbidity, radial immunodiffusion, and glutaraldehyde coagulation were determined. Calves were monitored for 100 days, and relative risks for death were calculated. Logistic regression models predicting death also were developed.

Results

None of the logistic regression models detected a significant association between test results and mortality. The greatest relative risks of mortality were observed in calves with serum protein concentrations < 4.5 g/dl, serum IgG, concentrations < 500 mg/dl, and sodium sulfite test scores < 1+.

Clinical Implications

Calves with lower passive transfer values had increased risk of death; however, failure of passive transfer is not an infallible predictor of mortality. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:2047-2049)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

:32 for successful vaccination of most calves. Depending on the immune status of the dam and the efficiency of colostral immunoglobulin transfer, this titer may be reached from 70 to 160 days of age. 6 This leaves a period of time during which calves are

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association