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ureteroneocystostomy site. As part of the routine screening that precedes transplantation, the recipient and donor cats were evaluated for Toxoplasma gondii –specific IgG antibodies a ; both cats were seronegative (IgG titer < 1:64). Six weeks after renal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, insufficient transport of immunologic components across the neonatal intestine, characterized by low serum concentrations of maternal IgG in the calf after suckling, is also detrimental. 2 Producers routinely feed frozen colostrum collected from cows on their

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

jugular venipuncture for determination of baseline serum IgG and biochemical values prior to feeding and again on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 28, and 56. Food was not withheld from any of the kittens prior to sample collection. Serum was harvested by

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To develop appropriate reference ranges for plasma IgG concentrations of llamas.

Animals

643 llamas on 5 farms.

Procedure

Plasma IgG concentration was measured by using a single radial immunodiffusion assay kit. Farm of origin, age, body condition score, and sex were recorded for each llama. The effect of each factor on plasma IgG concentration was evaluated separately, using ANOVA; the association between age and IgG concentration was evaluated, using linear regression. Multivariable regression models were developed to examine concurrent effects of age, sex, body condition score, farm, and various interactions on IgG concentration.

Results

The IgG concentrations were between 127 and 3,969 mg/dl. In llamas < 12 months old, farm of origin accounted for 29% of variability for IgG concentration. Reference range for plasma IgG concentrations in llamas < 12 months old was 391 to 2,357 mg/dl; for llamas > 12 but < 28 months old was 771 to 2,796 mg/dl; and for llamas > 28 months old was 570 to 3,264 mg/dl. These ranges were applicable only for the kit used in this study.

Conclusions

Healthy llamas have a wide range of IgG concentrations. Determinants of IgG concentration are multifactorial, and their importance varies with age of the llamas.

Clinical Implications

The wide range of IgG concentrations observed in healthy llamas and the influence that age and farm may have on IgG concentrations indicate that a result for one specific llama should be interpreted in relation to those of its herdmates. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:406–409)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

treatment of coccidioidomycosis in dogs. Additionally, evidence-based recommendations regarding the duration of treatment and timing of medication withdrawal are lacking. Clinicians frequently use serial monitoring of serologic test results (IgM and IgG

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

assumptions that maternally derived antibodies (which are primarily IgG subclass 1 in cattle) are not transported across mucosal epithelium of the upper respiratory tract, vaccine viruses establish productive infections in the upper respiratory tract, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

mouse anti-human TPO antibodies, c,d a polyclonal rabbit anti-human TPO antibody, e a monoclonal rabbit anti-human Tg aAb, f and a polyclonal rabbit anti-human Tg aAb. 7 Alkaline phosphatase–conjugated rabbit anti-dog IgG, h alkaline phosphatase

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare the concentration of IgG in colostrum between Holstein and Guernsey cows and among cows of various lactations.

Design

Cross-sectional cohort study.

Sample Population

Colostrum samples from 77 Holstein and 24 Guernsey cows.

Procedure

Colostrum samples were obtained from 101 cows. Colostral IgG concentration was determined, using a radial immunodiffusion assay. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of breed and lactation number on colostral IgG concentration. Survival analysis and t-tests were used to compare the proportion of colostrum samples that would provide 100 g of IgG for various volumes of colostral intake.

Results

Guernsey cows produced 36.4 g of IgG/L of colostrum more than that of Holstein cows. Cows in the third or greater lactation produced 19.5 g of IgG/L of colostrum more than that of first-lactation cows. The IgG concentration of colostrum produced by second-lactation cows did not differ significantly from that produced by first-lactation cows. The colostral IgG concentration of these Holstein and Guernsey cows was higher than values that have been reported elsewhere.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Volume of colostrum needed to meet IgG intake goals is probably lower for Guernsey cows than Holstein cows. Colostrum from first-lactation cows was adequate in IgG content. The practice of discarding colostrum from first-lactation cows on the basis of inadequate IgG content was not justified in this study. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1136–1139)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Chicken egg yolk IgG can be absorbed and transferred as efficiently as colostral antibodies in the blood of neonatal pigs. Egg yolk IgG has a half-life of 1.85 days in newborn pig serum. This is shorter than the reported half-life (12 to 14 days) of homologous IgG in serum of pigs. Similar to colostral antibodies, egg yolk IgG absorption from intestine ceased at about 34 hours of age, after a logarithmic decrease in absorption rate from birth. Egg yolk IgG absorption inhibition time in the gastrointestinal tract took 1.73 hours to decrease by half. Egg yolk IgG was protective against experimentally induced diarrhea in pigs when it was administered at high dose, and multiple dosing was instituted. Adverse effects were not observed when chicken egg yolk IgG was administered orally to pigs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

provide adequate nutrition and immunoglobulin mass for neonatal calves born on farms with colostrum supply shortages. Although CS products have been used to increase the fed volume of colostrum or increase the quality of colostrum, IgG concentrations in

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association