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our understanding of pain control in domestic mammals and humans is considerable, methods for measuring pain and analgesia in nondomestic species require further development. 2,4–7 Information regarding pain control is particularly scarce for reptiles

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Reptiles and amphibians as pets Although I would never denigrate the work being done by members of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians, I do not think that reptiles and amphibians should be encouraged as pets. 1 When I

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

S ystemic disease in reptiles, such as renal or hepatic disorders, can present with nonspecific clinical signs, such as lethargy, inappetence, and dehydration. Though diagnostics such as endoscopic evaluation and biopsy allow direct assessment of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-based mammals usually produce urea, water-based turtles often produce ammonia or urea, and land-based reptiles and birds predominantly excrete uric acid. 2 Results of several studies 3–6 of penguins and falcons have indicated that blood uric acid concentration

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

staining specific for factor VIII–related antigen. The heart of reptiles (order Squamata) is composed of 3 chambers: 2 atria and 1 ventricle that is divided by an incomplete septum. The single ventricle is composed of 3 chambers termed the cavum

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Comments Neoplasia is frequently encountered in the practice of reptile medicine, 1,2 although neoplastic diseases in reptiles were once thought to be rare. 3 The prevalence of neoplastic disease in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

(SCC) of the skin of the upper right eyelid. Comments Neoplasia is increasingly identified as a disease process in reptiles. Results of retrospective studies 1–3 in chelonians, snakes, lizards, and crocodilians have indicated that skin tumors

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Befriending reptiles and amphibians Veterinarians strive to improve care for distinctive pets Katie Burns Dr. Susan Horton was born with an affinity for reptiles and amphibians. Born in 1962 in a suburb of Chicago, she has been

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

amphibians and reptiles. Pain and pain management in nonmammalian vertebrates remain poorly understood. Results of several studies indicate that reptiles, 6–8 fish, 9 and birds 10 react to painful stimuli and that analgesia relieves pain, yet the basic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

affected, the gross and histologic lesions, and the presence of intralesional amoebic trophozoites; however, a definitive diagnosis relies on results from an immunofluorescence or PCR assay because nonpathogenic commensal amoeba can be present in reptiles

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association