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year. Therefore, hormonal causes were not considered a likely contributing factor to the behavior problem. Contact calling is a normal behavior in psittacines. Psittacines live in large flocks that separate into smaller flocks for foraging. Contact

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

in a psittacine bird. The phenomenon of ectopic mineralized eggs has been only inconsistently and incompletely described in the literature. 3–6 It is recommended that the diagnosis of an ectopic egg retention be made on the basis of palpation

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

conditions that significantly reduce the life expectancy of psittacine birds. There is a strong species predisposition to atherosclerosis and other lipid disorders, especially within Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.), grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

for more basic screening methods, such as for interpretation of cardiac size on radiographs, are lacking for most species of birds. Currently, evaluation of CW in birds is subjective and is based on published values for psittacine species in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

received a suspension of 100% barium sulfate (20 mL/kg [9 mL/lb], PO, via a gavage tube) for its purported therapeutic value in psittacines with gastrointestinal inflammation. 1 The next day, the bird was referred to the Special Species Service of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ventriculus, and ventricular dilatation with gas (proventriculus-to-keel ratio, 0.62). The bird's blood lead concentration was 4.6 μg/dL, below the reported lower limit for toxicosis but above values commonly found in psittacine birds at the authors’ clinic. A

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

atherosclerosis in pet psittacine birds typically develops in older birds fed a nutritionally unbalanced diet, with risk factors similar to those described for human atherosclerosis. 2,7 Parrots can develop a central form of atherosclerosis, in which the great

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

determination of proventricular diameter in psittacine birds Reference ranges for radiographic size of the proventriculus in psittacine birds are not available, with the result that proventricular enlargement is currently diagnosed subjectively on the basis of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Mycotic infections are common in psittacines, especially those caused by Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. 1,2 Despite frequent use of antifungal drugs in avian practice, safe and effective dosage regimens have not been established for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Aspergillosis is a commonly reported fungal disease that results in illness and death in avian species. 1–6 Species reportedly at increased risk of infection include raptors, waterfowl, poultry, and psittacine birds, specifically Amazon parrots

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research