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Objective

To determine whether perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis would reduce incidence of postoperative infection among dogs undergoing elective orthopedic procedures.

Design

Randomized, controlled, blinded, intention clinical trial.

Animals

Dogs of any breed, sex, or age undergoing elective orthopedic surgery at a veterinary teaching hospital.

Procedures

Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: treatment with saline solution, treatment with potassium penicillin G, and treatment with cefazolin. Treatments were intended to be administered within 30 minutes prior to surgery; a second dose was administered if surgery lasted > 90 minutes. Dogs were monitored for 10 to 14 days after surgery for evidence of infection.

Results

After the first 112 dogs were enrolled in the study, it was found that infection rate for control dogs (5/32 dogs) was significantly higher than the rate for dogs treated with antimicrobials (3/80 dogs). Therefore, no more dogs were enrolled in the study. A total of 126 dogs completed the study. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that compared with dogs that received antimicrobials prophylactically, dogs that received saline solution developed infections significantly more frequently. Difference in efficacy, however, was not observed between the 2 antimicrobial drugs used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results indicated that perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis decreased postoperative infection rate in dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery, compared with infection rate in control dogs. Cefazolin was not more efficacious than potassium penicillin G in these dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:212–216)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A study of data from 12 states in the Food Safety Inspection Service’s Residue Violation Information System was conducted to describe patterns of violative chemical residues in US beef during 1991, 1992, and 1993. In 1991, 3,249 violative residues were found in 2,734 carcasses in the 12 states included in the study. In 1992, 3,132 violative residues were found in 2,813 carcasses, and in 1993, 2,317 violative residues were found in 2,051 carcasses. During each of the 3 years, the Calf Antibiotic and Sulfonamide Test and Swab Test On Premises projects detected most of the violative residues, and producers/independent growers and dairy farms were recorded as the responsible sources for most of the violations. Also, most of the animals found to have violative residues were bob calves and culled cows. In bob calves, neomycin was the most frequently identified violative chemical, followed by tetracycline, gentamicin, Oxytetracycline, and penicillin. In culled cows, penicillin was the most frequently identified violative chemical and was the chemical most frequently found in combination with other chemicals in cows with multiple violative residues. Distribution patterns of violative chemical residues by slaughter class and residue type varied among the 5 Food Safety Inspection Service regions. These specific regional characteristics support the need for customized intervention, education, assessment, and prevention programs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Four intrauterine treatment strategies were evaluated for effectiveness in mares that were confirmed to be susceptible to chronic uterine infection. Pretreatment samples were obtained at detection of estrus, and a genital strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus was infused into the uterus when a preovulatory (> 35 mm) follicle was detected. At 12 hours after inoculation, mares were assigned to 1 of 4 selected treatment groups: autologous plasma, 100 ml (n = 5); potassium penicillin, 5 million U in 100 ml of phosphate-buffered saline solution (pbss; n = 5); 10 mg of prostaglandin F in 100 ml of pbss (n = 5); and large-volume lavage with normal saline solution (1,000 ml increments). A fifth group, treated with vehicle alone (100 ml of pbss), served as a negative control (n = 7). All treatments were administered into the uterus. To assess the effectiveness of the treatment, samples for culture and cytologic examination were collected at 96 hours after bacterial inoculation. An effect of treatment was observed on the number of uterine neutrophils (P = 0.02) and growth of S zooepidemicus (P < 0.01). Intrauterine treatment with potassium penicillin, prostaglandin F, and largevolume uterine lavage significantly reduced the growth of S zooepidemicus (P < 0.01) as well as the number of neutrophils (P < 0.02). Autologous plasma reduced the number of neutrophils (P < 0.05), but not growth of S zooepidemicus. There was significant correlation between the number of uterine neutrophils and growth of S zooepidemicus for each treatment group (r = 0.57; P < 0.05).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate antimicrobial agents for treatment of models of acute and persistent leptospirosis caused by Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona.

Design

Randomized trials comparing dosages and regimens of various antimicrobial agents for treatment of acute and persistent leptospirosis.

Animals

245 Golden hamsters to model acute leptospirosis and 121 mixed-breed swine to model persistent leptospirosis.

Procedure

Hamsters and swine were inoculated with L interrogans serovar pomona. Antimicrobial agents were given to hamsters for 3 or 5 days after inoculation, with necropsy at 14 days after inoculation. Swine were treated for 1, 3, or 5 days beginning at 3 weeks after inoculation, and were necropsied 7 to 10 days after completion of antimicrobial agent treatment. Hamster tissue and swine tissue and urine specimens were examined by culture, fluorescent antibody testing, and histologic examination for presence of leptospires.

Results

All untreated control hamsters became infected and manifested clinical signs and lesions of acute leptospirosis. Leptospires were not detected in hamsters treated with dihydrostreptomycin/penicillin G (25 mg/kg of body weight). Administration of ampicillin at all dosages reduced the number of hamsters infected, as confirmed at necropsy; the other agents tested required dosages greater than label recommendations to reduce the number infected. All untreated control swine became infected and shed leptospires in urine through the time of necropsy. Leptospires were not detected in kidneys or urine of swine treated with dihydrostreptomycin/penicillin G (25 mg/kg) for 1, 3, or 5 days, or in swine treated with oxytetracycline (40 mg/kg for 3 or 5 days), tylosin (44 mg/kg for 5 days), or erythromycin (25 mg/kg for 5 days). Treatment with ceftiofur and ampicillin was not effective in elimination of L interrogans serovar pomona in swine.

Conclusions

Dihydrostreptomycin/penicillin G is effective for treatment of acute and persistent leptospirosis. Differences between the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in the acute and persistent model of leptospirosis emphasize the importance of using the appropriate model for treatment evaluation. Antimicrobial agents evaluated for treatment of persistent leptospirosis in swine required the use of dosages above those recommended by the manufacturer.

Clinical Relevance

Use of antimicrobial agents at extra-label dosages for treatment of persistent leptospirosis may cause residue problems in food animals; however, these regimens may be useful for treatment of breeding stock or animals destined for import/export. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:59-62)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Peritonitis attributable to Actinobacillus equuli was diagnosed in 15 horses examined at the veterinary center between 1982 and 1992. In 13 horses, historical findings included acute onset of mild to severe signs of abdominal pain, lethargy, and inappetence. Two other horses had a history of weight loss for 3 to 6 weeks prior to examination. Diagnosis was based on the physical signs and laboratory findings, including results of peritoneal fluid analysis (gross characteristics, total protein, total and differential nucleated cell counts, and morphologic findings) and culture of A equuli. Actinobacillus equuli was consistently susceptible in vitro to penicillin, trimethoprim/sulfadiazine, and aminoglycosides. All horses in the study had marked clinical improvement within 24 to 48 hours of commencing antibiotic and supportive treatment. Antibiotic treatment was continued for variable periods, depending on the horse, but ranged from 5 to 21 days. In 11 horses for which follow-up information was available, long-term response to treatment was excellent, with horses returning to original activity.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a multiple-residue screening method for the detection of β-lactams in bovine urine.

Animals—6 clinically normal Holstein cows and 6 calves.

Procedure—Pooled urine obtained from cows was used as a negative-control sample or spiked with varying concentrations of 6 β-lactam antibiotics. Urine samples were prepared for liquid chromatography by diluting 1 ml of urine with 9 ml of 0.01M KH2PO4, 0.01M Na2PO4, and filtering. Filtrate (2,000 ml) was eluted with a mobile phase in a gradient program. A fraction corresponding to each β-lactam of interest was collected and evaporated to < 1 ml, and water then was added to achieve a 1ml volume. The collected fraction was tested, using a microbial inhibition test. Then, calves were fed milk spiked with a mixture of 5 β-lactam antibiotics at a concentration 40X the FDA tolerance in milk. Three hours following the feeding, urine samples were obtained from the calves and tested, as described for the urine samples for the cows.

Results—The lowest concentrations of amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephapirin, cloxacillin, desfuroylceftiofurcysteine, and penicillin G that were consistently detected in urine were 100, 10, 100, 250, 1,000, and 10 ng/ml, respectively. Amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephapirin, cloxacillin, desacetylcephapirin, and penicillin G were detected in urine samples of 6/6, 5/6, 0/6, 6/6, 2/6, and 3/6 calves respectively, fed antibiotic- spiked milk.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The integrated method described can be used to detect or identify β-lactam antibiotics in bovine urine. This method can be used to test cattle for β-lactam residues. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:326–330)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin hydrolysate (bLf-lysate) alone or in combination with other antimicrobials against antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from baby pigs.

Sample Population—3 clinical strains of E coli were isolated from baby pigs with severe diarrhea and designated as strains 9061, 9062, and 9065.

Procedure—The broth microdilution checkerboard and fractional inhibitory (or bactericidal) concentration index were used to evaluate the antibacterial effect elicited by bLf-lysate in combination with kanamycin, gentamicin, cephalothin, cefamandole, penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, or rifampicin against the 3 strains of E coli.

Results—The 3 strains of E coli were susceptible to gentamicin and rifampicin but highly resistant to most of the other antimicrobials tested, except for strain 9061 that was also susceptible to cephalothin but intermediately inhibited by kanamycin and cefamandole. Synergistic growth-inhibitory activity was observed between bLf-lysate and gentamicin against 1 strain of E coli (strain 9062); synergistic bactericidal activity was found between bLf-lysate and rifampicin against all 3 strains of E coli. Moreover, partial synergy was observed between bLf-lysate and kanamycin, gentamicin, cephalothin, or cefamandole against the strains of E coli, but this partial synergistic activity was mostly seen against only 1 of the strains. Little interaction between bLf-lysate and tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin G, or erythromycin was observed against the clinical strains of E coli.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A combination of bLf-lysate and certain antimicrobials may prove clinically effective against antimicrobial-resistant strains of E coli. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:131–137)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate antibiotics for treatment of cattle with leptospirosis caused by Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—42 healthy mixed-breed cattle.

Procedure—Cattle were inoculated via conjunctival instillation with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo. After infection and urinary shedding of L borgpetersenii were confirmed, cattle were treated with various antibiotics. To determine effectiveness of antibiotic treatment, urinary shedding of L borgpetersenii was monitored for 4 to 6 weeks after administration of antibiotics, using darkfield microscopic examination, microbial culture, immunofluorescence testing, and a polymerase chain reaction assay.

Results—All inoculated cattle developed leptospirosis and shed leptospires in their urine. The following antibiotic treatments resulted in elimination of urinary shedding of leptospires: a single injection of oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg [9 mg/lb] of body weight, IM), tilmicosin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], SC), or a combination product that contained dihydrostreptomycin-penicillin G (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], IM) or multiple injections of ceftiofur sodium (2.2 or 5 mg/kg [1 or 2.3 mg/lb], IM, once daily for 5 days, or 20 mg/kg, IM, once daily for 3 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Successful resolution of leptospirosis in cattle by administration of dihydrostreptomycin-penicillin G confirms results obtained by other investigators. Three other antibiotics (oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, and ceftiofur) also were effective for resolving leptospirosis and may be useful substitutes for dihydrostreptomycin, an antibiotic that is no longer available for use in food-producing animals in the United States. Cost, safety, and withdrawal times of these various treatment options need to be considered. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:636–639)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In vitro transferability of pemcillm. strepiomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin resistance from coagulase-negative staphylococci to Staphylococcus aureus and among the former species of bovine mammary gland origin was examined by bacterial mating on filters and by mixed-culture matings in broth and in skim milk. One hundred twenty-six (42 each on filter, in broth, and in skim milk) matings were performed among 37 isolates of different Staphylococcus species. Transfer of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, or erythromycin was not detected. Of 51 matings performed to determine streptomycin-resistance transfer, 9 (3 each on filters, in broth, and skim milk) were successful. Nine strains representing 3 species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were tested as prospective donors of streptomycin resistance. Of these, 2 strains could transfer streptomycin resistance. A double-resistant donor, Shominis, not only transferred its streptomycin resistance to an S chromogenes strain lacking resistance, but also to an S aureus strain already carrying penicillin and tetracycline resistance. The transfer of streptomycin resistance from the donor S hominis, harboring 2 plasmids, to a plasmidless S chromogenes recipient strain was associated with apparent acquisition of the smaller plasmid of the donor by the recipient. The single-resistant donor, S epidermidis 681A, transferred streptomycin resistance to a tetracycline-resistant. S aureus recipient. This strain however failed to transfer its streptomycin resistance to another S aureus, 2 S hyicus, and 1 S xylosus recipient. Frequency of transfer of streptomycin resistance ranged from 1.1 × 10−5 to 1 × 10−4. When transfer of resistance was successful, attempts were made to characterize the transfer process. Conjugation appeared to be the mode of streptomycin-resistance transfer. Transfer of resistance between staphylococci of bovine mammary gland origin appears to be fairly uncommon. However, in view of the limitations of the procedures used, additional in vitro and in vivo work is needed to further assess the role of coagulase-negative staphylococci in dissemination of antibiotic resistance.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To identify risk factors for nosocomial Salmonella infections among hospitalized horses.

Design

Longitudinal study.

Animals

1,583 horses hospitalized in an intensive care unit between January 1992 and June 1996.

Procedure

Survivor functions were used to estimate time to shedding salmonellae for various Salmonella serotypes. Survival analysis was then used to determine how variables associated with patient management, environmental conditions, hospital conditions, and other disease processes affected the risk of nosocomial Salmonella infection.

Results

78 horses shed Salmonella organisms: 35 shed Salmonella krefeld, 26 shed S typhimurium, and 17 shed other Salmonella serotypes. Mean time from admission to shedding was significantly longer for horses shedding S krefeld or S typhimurium than for horses shedding other Salmonella serotypes. Therefore, infection with S krefeld or S typhimurium was considered nosocomial. Seven variables were found to be significantly associated with risk of nosocomial Salmonella infection: mean number of horses in the hospital shedding S krefeld during the 4 days prior to and the day of admission, mean number of horses shedding S typhimurium during this period, a diagnosis of large colon impaction, withholding feed, number of days fed bran mash, duration of treatment with potassium penicillin G, and mean daily ambient temperature.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that risk of nosocomial Salmomella infections is greater for horses with large colon impactions. In addition to implementing hospital protocols that minimize cross contamination between patients, strategies to reduce the risk of nosocomial Salmonella infection should include minimizing use of potassium penicillin G and regulation of environmental temperature in the hospital. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1511-1516)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association