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diagnosis: chronic, suppurative, thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis and periostitis; suppurative spinal pachymeningitis and epidural steatitis, with axonal degeneration; and chronic carpal tenosynovitis and arthritis in the left forelimb. Case summary

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical and histologic effects of repeated intraosseous (IO) needle placement in domestic pigs and determine whether blood and serum obtained intraosseously could be used for CBC and biochemical analyses.

Animals—5 healthy 10-week-old pigs.

Procedure—An IO needle was placed in the proximomedial region of the tibia of anesthetized pigs every other week for 2 months, and IO blood was obtained for CBC and serum biochemical analyses. Results were compared with those obtained for blood collected at the same time from the auricular vein. Two weeks after the final samples were obtained, pigs were euthanatized and tibias were processed for histologic examination.

Results—Clinical abnormalities, including lameness, were not detected following IO needle placement. Histologic examination revealed only mild multifocal periosteal fibrosis and slight thickening of the periosteum without evidence of osteomyelitis. Chloride, creatinine, glucose, total protein, sodium, and BUN concentrations, alanine transaminase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities, RBC count, mean corpuscular volume, and Hct did not significantly differ between IO and venous samples. However, aspartate transaminase activity, potassium, hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and platelet and WBC counts were significantly different.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Repeated placement of IO needles may be a safe and clinically useful method to obtain serial blood samples from domestic pigs, particularly when other vascular sites are not accessible. Intraosseous blood can be used for many of the tests comprising CBC and serum biochemical analyses. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:43–47)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To document the clinical, clinicopathologic, and pathologic findings in cats with severe sepsis, identify abnormalities unique to this species, and identify criteria that could be used antemortem to diagnose the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—29 cats confirmed to have severe sepsis at necropsy.

Procedure—Pertinent history, physical examination findings, and results of hematologic and biochemical testing were extracted from medical records.

Results—Clinical diagnoses included pyothorax, septic peritonitis, bacteremia secondary to gastrointestinal tract disease, pneumonia, endocarditis, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, pyometra, and bite wounds. Physical examination findings included lethargy, pale mucous membranes, poor pulse quality, tachypnea, hypo- or hyperthermia, signs of diffuse pain on abdominal palpation, bradycardia, and icterus. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included anemia, thrombocytopenia, band neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, low serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and hyperbilirubinemia. Necropsy findings included multiorgan necrosis or inflammation with intralesional bacteria.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that severe sepsis in cats is characterized by lethargy, pale mucous membranes, signs of diffuse abdominal pain, tachypnea, bradycardia, weak pulses, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypothermia, and icterus. Recognition of this combination of clinical findings should facilitate the diagnosis of severe sepsis in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:531–535)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare long-term results of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy followed by exenteration of the nasal cavity in dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—53 dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia.

Procedure—All dogs underwent radiotherapy consisting of administration of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each on consecutive weekdays. For dogs in the surgery group (n = 13), follow-up computed tomography was performed, and dogs were scheduled for surgery if persistent or recurrent tumor was seen.

Results—Perioperative complications for dogs that underwent surgery included hemorrhage requiring transfusion (2 dogs) and subcutaneous emphysema (8). Rhinitis and osteomyelitis-osteonecrosis occurred significantly more frequently in dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group (9 and 4 dogs, respectively) than in dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (4 and 3 dogs, respectively). Two- and 3-year survival rates were 44% and 24%, respectively, for dogs in the radiotherapy group and 69% and 58%, respectively, for dogs in the surgery group. Overall median survival time for dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group (47.7 months) was significantly longer than time for dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (19.7 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that exenteration of the nasal cavity significantly prolongs survival time in dogs with intranasal neoplasia that have undergone radiotherapy. Exenteration after radiotherapy may increase the risk of chronic complications. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:936–941)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine treatment and outcome of a series of wapiti (elk) with fractures of the limbs.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

22 wapiti.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed to determine affected limb and bone, fracture configuration, method of treatment, outcome, and complications.

Results

2 animals had fractures of the humerus; 8 had fractures of the radius, ulna, or both; 5 had fractures of the third metacarpal bone; 3 had fractures of the tibia; 2 had fractures of the femur; and 2 had fractures of the tarsal bones. Most fractures (n = 11) were closed, displaced, nonarticular fractures; 6 fractures were open. Four animals died or were euthanatized prior to fracture treatment, 2 were not treated because fractures had already healed, and 14 underwent fracture repair. In the remaining 2 animals, the affected limb was amputated. Five animals developed nonfatal complications (wound dehiscence, osteomyelitis [2 animals], delayed union, and malunion) and 2 developed fatal complications (gastrocnemius rupture and femoral fracture during recovery). Overall, 16 animals were discharged from the hospital, and all were doing well at follow-up, 2 months to 4 years after discharge.

Clinical Implications

In wapiti, limb fractures can be successfully treated by means of internal or external fixation. The high rate of fracture healing, even among wapiti with open fractures, should encourage veterinarians to repair limb fractures in wapiti. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1829-1832)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

diagnoses included hematogenous osteomyelitis and hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD). Primary or metastatic neoplasia were considered less likely because of the dog's young age. Figure 2— Same left antebrachial radiographic images as in Figure 1 . A

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with absence of joint effusion ( Figure 2 ). These radiographic changes are consistent with an aggressive bone lesion, and differential diagnoses include bacterial or mycotic osteomyelitis, primary bone tumor, and metastatic bone tumor. Figure 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. The histopathologic diagnosis was severe, regionally extensive, chronic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic osteomyelitis and stomatitis with bony remodeling ( Figure 3 ). The dog was subsequently administered clindamycin (17.2 mg/kg [7.8 mg/lb], PO

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

radiographic diagnosis is mixed polyostotic sclerosis and lysis, lack of coelomic detail, possible hepatomegaly, and intestinal ileus. Differential diagnoses include disseminated bacterial or mycotic osteomyelitis and hepatitis (possibly caused by

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the mandibular fossa had irregular osseous proliferation and osteolysis consistent with osteomyelitis. There were a few small, hyperattenuating fragments medial and lateral to the main fragment. Additionally, multiple peripherally contrast

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association