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SUMMARY

Logistic regression was used to develop models predicting preweaning survival in 334 neonatal swine. Measured risk factors included birth weight, litter size (live born), dam parity, serum IgG concentration, serum elisa titers recognizing common gram-negative core antigens, and serum concentrations of the third component of complement. Larger birth weights were associated with increased probability of preweaning survival. The highest mortality was observed in litters with more than 12 pigs. Pigs with serum concentration of the third component of complement (C3) in the lowest stratum, < 20% adult pooled C3 standard (APC3), had reduced mortality, compared with high (> 38% APC3) and middle (20 to 38% APC3) groups. Associations between all other variables, including total serum IgG concentration and preweaning survival were not significant. Few pigs had hypogammaglobulinemia, < 3% of the study population had serum IgG concentrations < 1 g/dl. Of all measured variables, only birth weight and dam parity were significant predictors of preweaning gain. Larger pigs and pigs born to third or greater parity dams had more preweaning gain than other pigs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Case records of 32 neonatal calves with the antemortem diagnosis of meningitis were reviewed. Mean age at admission was 6 days (range, 11 hours to 30 days), and the most common concurrent clinical problem was diarrhea (16/32). Twenty-seven of the calves were available for necropsy. At postmortem, there was evidence of septicemia in 22 (81%) of these calves. Escherichia coli was the organism most frequently isolated (11/16; 69%) from the cns.

The major clinical signs of cns disturbance observed over the course of hospitalization were lethargy, recumbency, anorexia, loss of suckle reflex, and coma. Leukocytosis and a left shift was evident in 11 of 15 (73%) calves. Concurrent metabolic problems that could have aggravated the cns disturbance included hyperkalemia and respiratory acidosis. Analysis cerebrospinal of fluid from 22 of the calves, revealed pleocytosis, xanthochromia, turbidity, and high total protein concentration. Cytologically, neutrophils predominated in the csf in calves with acute disease. Mononuclear cells dominated in calves with chronic disease. Microscopically, bacteria were evident in 10 of 22 (45%) of the antemortem csf samples and bacteria were isolated from slightly more than half (11/19) of the specimens subjected to microbial culturing. Escherichia coli was the agent most frequently isolated from the csf. Two of the 9 E coli isolates were resistant to trimethoprim potentiated sulfonamide drugs and all (4/4) of the csf E coli isolates tested for susceptibility to triple-sulfonamide drugs were resistant.

Twenty-seven of the 32 calves died or were euthanatized within 2.43 days after hospitalization. Other conditions identified at necropsy were: rabies (1 calf), lumbar vertebrae fracture (1 calf), birth-related asphyxial injury (1 calf), and severe brain edema attributed to hypernatremia. The 5 remaining calves were discharged from the hospital, but later died or were euthanatized because of related complications during the convalescent period, and were not available for necropsy.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The influence of the QT, TQ, and ST intervals, and heart score on both cardiac cycle duration (RR) and diastole/systole (D/S) quotient were analyzed during the neonatal (1 day and 5 days) pigs belonging to 2 crossbreeds of different rusticity, Landrace × Belgian White (LBW) and Landrace × Duroc Jersey (LDJ). Our findings indicate that the shortening of the RR interval in 5-day-old pigs of both crossbreeds was determined by different variables in each breed. In LDJ pigs, this shortening was only associated with a shortening of ventricular activation, and in each age group, the systole and the diastole contributed equally to the RR value. The D/S quotient did not differ significantly in 1-day-old vs 5-day-old pigs, and at both ages, the quotient was only determined by the TQ value. In LBW pigs, the RR, QT, TQ, and ST were shortened, but only the shortening of QT was significant as a result of an acceleration of the ventricular recuperation process. Moreover, differences were found between 1-day-old vs 5-day-old pigs with regard to the contribution of the different intervals to the RR duration. In 1-day-old pigs, the RR depended closely on the TQ, whereas in 5-day-old pigs, all intervals contributed significantly to its duration. The D/S quotient was not significantly different in 1-day-old vs 5-day-old pigs, but a different contribution of the variables studied was observed at the 2 ages selected. In 1-day-old pigs, D/S quotient depended on the diastole duration, whereas in 5-day-old pigs, the diastole and systole contributed to its variation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Concentrations of amino acids in the plasma of 13 neonatal foals with septicemia were compared with the concentrations of amino acids in the plasma of 13 age-matched neonatal foals without septicemia. Analysis of the results revealed significantly lower concentrations of arginine, citrulline, isoleucine, proline, threonine, and valine in the plasma of foals with septicemia. The ratio of the plasma concentrations of the branched chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) to the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine), was also significantly lower in the foals with septicemia. In addition, the concentrations of alanine, glycine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in the plasma of foals with septicemia. Therefore, neonatal foals with septicemia had significant differences in the concentrations of several amino acids in their plasma, compared with concentrations from healthy foals. These differences were compatible with protein calorie inadequacy and may be related to an alteration in the intake, production, use, or clearance of amino acids from the plasma pool in sepsis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Fifty-four neonatal pigs were allotted to 4 groups and reared in an electrically controlled automatic feeding device (autosow). Each group was reared on a different pool of bovine colostrum: fresh, stored 1 month, stored 6 months, and stored 8 years. Bovine and porcine immunoglobulins in the sera of these pigs, and in a group of conventionally reared pigs, were measured periodically during the first 42 days after birth. The maximal concentration of absorbed bovine immunoglobulin was reached between 12 and 18 hours and equaled or exceeded the amount of porcine immunoglobulin absorbed by the conventionally reared pigs. Large differences in the concentrations of the bovine immunoglobulin isotypes among the various pools of colostrum were positively correlated with concentration of these isotypes in the sera of the neonatal pigs fed these pools. Relative to their concentrations in colostrum, approximately 41% of the IgGl, 55% of the IgG2, 29% of the IgM, and 67% of the IgA was absorbed. The IgA was absorbed the best and IgM was least absorbed. Significant trends or differences in absorption were not observed among groups. Neonatal pigs given fresh colostrum, which had a higher fat content, had significantly more weight gain (P < 0.05). This occurred, despite the fact that the fresh colostrum had the lowest concentration of bovine immunoglobulin. Serum half-lives for bovine IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly less than for porcine IgG (P < 0.05), whereas the half-lives for bovine and porcine IgM and IgA were similar.

De novo-synthesized immunoglobulins were detectable in serum after 6 days; IgM concentrations reached a maximum at 15 days in neonatal pigs given stored, but not fresh, colostrum. The IgG and IgA concentrations steadily increased in all groups and were highest on day 42, when the study was terminated. Neonatal pigs ingesting fresh colostrum had significantly lower concentrations of de novo-synthesized IgG and IgA than pigs fed stored colostrum (P < 0.05). Concentrations in these pigs were also lower than those in conventionally reared pigs. This occurred, despite the lower immunoglobulin concentration in fresh colostrum, and correspondingly, the lower amount of bovine immunoglobulin in pigs that received this colostrum and absorbed it into their serum. In most instances, the amounts of immunoglobulin of any isotype absorbed from stored colostrum and the amount of de novo-synthesized immunoglobulin present 6 weeks later, were inversely correlated. Data indicated that a storage-labile, nonimmunoglobulin factor, in bovine colostrum is able to suppress de novo IgG and IgA synthesis by neonatal pigs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Blood samples were collected from 25 neonatal llamas before suckling and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours of age. Nine tests for determining serum immunoglobulin concentrations were performed on each sample, to compare within-test variation and correlations among tests. The single radial immunodiffusion assay was the only quantitative test and therefore, was judged the most accurate test for determining the status of passive transfer of immunoglobulins in neonatal llamas. Measurement of globulin concentration and total serum protein, and the sodium sulfite precipitation test were accurate when compared with radial immunodiffusion assay results. Measurements of total serum solids by use of a hand-held refractometer and of albumin concentration, and the zinc sulfate turbidity and 10% glutaraldehyde coagulation tests were not reliable for detecting failure of passive transfer in neonatal llamas. Ten of 25 neonatal llamas were suspected of having partial to complete failure of passive transfer on the basis of results of the single radial immunodiffusion assay. The other tests used in this study identified between 4 and 7 of these 10 llamas at 24 hours of age. On follow-up communication 4 to 6 months after the last blood sample collection, none of the 25 llamas were identified as having been clinically ill or had received any treatments for illness associated with low immunoglobulin concentrations.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Analysis of hepatic enzyme activities in serum samples from 1- to 3-day-old pups revealed alkaline phosphatase (alp) activities that were 30 times higher and γ-glutamyltransferase (ggt) activities that were 100 times higher than activities in clinically normal adult dogs. A study was conducted to investigate high enzyme activity in pups and to determine whether there is any association between serum enzyme activity and colostrum ingestion, passive transfer of maternal serum enzyme (in colostrum or in utero), or excessive renal or hepatic tissue enzymes. Serum enzyme activity was quantified in 15 neonatal pups before and after ingestion of colostrum and in 3 colostrum-deprived neonates fed a milk substitute. Serum samples were collected on postpartum days 0, 1, 10, 15, and 30. Enzyme activity was also quantified in serum from pregnant and lactating bitches (collected on days -2, 0, 1, 10, 30), hepatic and renal tissue from clinically normal adult dogs and 1-day-old pups, colostrum, milk (collected on days 10 and 30), and milk replacer.

Significant (P < 0.01) differences in serum ggt and alp activities between colostrum-deprived and suckling pups did not exist before initial feeding. Significant (P < 0.001) increases in serum ggt and alp activities developed within 24 hours in suckling pups, but not in the colostrum-deprived pups. At 10 and 30 days after birth, serum ggt and alp activities were less than values before suckling in all pups.

Enzyme activities in bitches’ serum remained within the normal range for adult dogs throughout whelping and lactation. Renal ggt and alp activities were substantially greater than hepatic enzyme activities in neonates and adults. Renal tissue from adults contained 3 times greater ggt and 2 times greater alp activities than that from neonates. Hepatic tissue from neonates contained 5 times more ggt activity than did hepatic tissues from clinically normal adults; however, hepatic alp activity was similar in adults and neonates.

Colostrum and milk had substantially higher enzyme activities than did bitches’ serum. Activities of ggt and alp in milk were 100 times and 10 times greater, respectively, than activities in serum through day 10. By day 30, ggt and alp activities in milk were less than before suckling. Enzyme activity was not detected in the milk substitute.

These studies reveal an association between colostrum ingestion by suckling and acute, profound increases in serum ggt and alp in 1- to 3-day-old pups. Although this phenomenon might be useful as an indicator of colostrum ingestion, it precludes the diagnostic use of either enzyme as an indicator of hepatobiliary disease in 3-day-old pups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of omeprazole paste, a commonly used antiulcer drug, on intragastric pH in clinically normal neonatal foals.

Animals—6 clinically normal foals between 5 and 14 days of age.

Procedure—Intragastric pH was recorded in each foal by use of a disposable antimony pH electrode with internal reference. Values for intragastric pH were recorded every 4 seconds by use of an ambulatory pH monitor. There were two 24-hour recordings of intragastric pH for each foal, with 24 hours between recordings. Foals were not administered any drugs during the first recording. Foals were administered omeprazole paste (4 mg/kg, PO) 1 hour after the start of the second recording. Mean pH was calculated for each hour of each 24-hour recording session. Hourly mean values were compared between the first and second 24-hour recordings.

Results—Complete data were obtained from 4 of 6 foals during the first 24-hour recording and 6 of 6 foals during the second 24-hour recording. Foals had significantly higher mean hourly intragastric pH for hours 2 to 22 following omeprazole administration, compared with corresponding hourly pH values in foals during the first recording.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Omeprazole paste can effectively increase intragastric pH in clinically normal neonatal foals within 2 hours after oral administration of the first dose and can be administered to neonatal foals at the rate of 4 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1039–1041).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona could be detected in CSF from clinically normal neonatal (2 to 7 days old) and young (2 to 3 months old) foals.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 clinically normal neonatal Thoroughbred foals.

Procedure—Serum and CSF samples were obtained from foals at 2 to 7 days of age and tested for antibodies against S neurona by means of western blotting. Serum samples from the mares were also tested for antibodies against S neurona. Additional CSF and blood samples were obtained from 5 foals between 13 and 41 days after birth and between 62 and 90 days after birth.

Results—Antibodies against S neurona were detected in serum from 13 mares and their foals; antibodies against S neurona were detected in CSF from 12 of these 13 foals. Degree of immunoreactivity in serum and CSF decreased over time, and antibodies against S neurona were no longer detected in CSF from 2 foals 83 and 84 days after birth. However, antibodies could still be detected in CSF from the other 3 foals between 62 and 90 days after birth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that antibodies against S neurona can be detected in CSF from clinically normal neonatal (2 to 7 days old) foals born to seropositive mares. This suggests that western blotting of CSF cannot be reliably used to diagnose equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in foals < 3 months of age born to seropositive mares. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:208–211)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate effectiveness of an allicin-based product in neonatal calves inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum.

Design

Randomized controlled study.

Animals

43 neonatal calves.

Procedure

Calves were inoculated with 1.5 × l06 or 7.5 × 105 C parvum oocysts within 2 days after birth. Calves were given an allicin-based product once after inoculation or daily for 7 days after inoculation or were not treated. Calves that developed diarrhea were treated by administration of the product. Fecal consistency scores and weight gains were statistically evaluated.

Results

Mean daily weight gain and severity of diarrhea in calves 4 to 21 days old were unaffected by prophylactic use of the product. However, intensive prophylactic administration may have delayed onset of C parvum-induced diarrhea in calves inoculated with the lower dose of oocysts.

Clinical Implications

Administration of an allicin-based product did not alter duration of C parvum-induced diarrhea or enhance weight gain in neonatal calves. However, intensive prophylactic administration of an allicin-based product may delay onset of diarrhea in calves exposed to C parvum oocysts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:987–990)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association