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the cranial abdomen, including left ventricle, liver, and gall bladder, and vertebrae (from ninth thoracic vertebra to second lumbar vertebra). The scan duration for each PET/CT protocol and the time interval between the 2 PET scans was recorded

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. At that time, echocardiography revealed volume overload and hyperkinesis of the left ventricle; no other abnormalities were identified echocardiographically. A transvenous, bipolar, dual-chamber VDD a,b (singlelead atrial synchronous

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and another thrombus attached to the anterior papillary muscle in the left ventricle was observed. Fractional shortening was severely reduced (8%; reference range, 40% to 67%). The left ventricular internal dimension at end systole was 24 mm (reference

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

S1 ) . Excessive collection of free fluid in the abdomen, hepatomegaly, and generalized lymphadenomegaly were observed upon ultrasonography. Echocardiography revealed alterations (transversal view of the left ventricle) consistent with pericardial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-certified veterinary radiologist (MD). The SV was first calculated on the basis of morphological changes over 1 cardiac cycle for the short-axis (left and right ventricle) and long-axis (only left ventricle) planes. Endo- and epicardial contours of both ventricles

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

are required to establish the reference ranges of TDI values for radial and longitudinal motions of the left ventricle. Therefore, the primary objective of the study reported here was to describe and analyze radial and longitudinal velocities of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

allowed administration of fluids or drugs as needed. Following median sternotomy, a hemispheric hollow capsule 7,9 was attached to the epicardial surface of the left ventricle near the apex by use of cyanoacrylate adhesive ( Figure 1 ). The capsule

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

practice is controversial because volume measurement from linear dimensions of the left ventricle may be overestimated in patients with distorted ventricles and abnormal wall motions. 10 Results of multiple studies 11–13 suggest that a 64-slice MDCT is a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

(21.3 mm; reference range, 11.5 ± 1.9 mm). The interventricular septum appeared to be skewed toward the left ventricle as a result of the severe enlargement of the right ventricular chamber. Thickness of the right ventricular wall (3.4 mm; reference

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the interventricular septum to activate the left ventricle. The left ventricle relies on impulse transmission through myocytes (instead of Purkinje fibers), resulting in late and slow depolarization of the left ventricle. The resultant aberrantly

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association