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tear in the urinary tract was suspected. The cat was premedicated with dexmedetomidine hydrochloride d (50 μg/kg [22.7 μg/lb], IM) and morphine b (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], IM) in preparation for an exploratory laparotomy. Anesthesia was induced with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hours of medical treatment, exploratory laparotomy was performed under general anesthesia. The pig was medicated with buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg [0.0045 mg/lb], IV) 5 minutes prior to induction of anesthesia. Induction of anesthesia was achieved with 6 mg

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

infection. A biopsy of the prostate was also planned because prostatic neoplasia was suspected. An exploratomy laparotomy was performed 12 days after the initial examination. The dog was premedicated with acepromazine (0.01 mg/kg [0.005 mg/lb], IM) and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, heterogeneous, and hypoechoic. Results of cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates obtained from the spleen and left anal sac were consistent with a diagnosis of AGAC. The dog underwent left anal sacculectomy, exploratory laparotomy, medial iliac

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

or via laparotomy. Potential risks of percutaneous tube cystotomy include trauma to the organs adjacent to the urinary bladder and tube displacement because of the inability to secure the catheter within the bladder with a suture. 7,8,11 In small

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the small intestine during a laparotomy was used to achieve a diagnosis. However, many clinicians prefer a less invasive approach, and many noninvasive or minimally invasive tests have been used to aid in the diagnosis and differentiation of chronic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

vertebral column. CBC and biochemical profile testing were within reference limits. Treatment and Outcome Surgery was planned to remove the left duplicate organs and rectovestibular fistula. Exploratory laparotomy was performed via midline celiotomy

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the thickened intestinal segment. To obtain full-thickness biopsies of the thickened intestines and the enlarged lymph nodes, an exploratory laparotomy was performed. The day following admission, the patient was anesthetized, and a routine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Because of financial constraints, the owners elected to delay the recommended exploratory laparotomy until after the weekend (ie, 2 days), with supportive care provided in the interim. Figure 1— Standing lateral radiographic view of a 13-year

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

laparotomy. 4–6 The patient was not given food for 36 hours prior to surgery. A catheter was placed into the jugular vein, and the goat was treated with ceftiofur (2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb], IV) and flunixin meglumine (0.5 mg/kg [0.22 mg/lb], IV) before surgery

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association