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Abstract

Objective—To compare the anesthetic efficacy and physiologic changes associated with exposure to tricaine methanesulfonate and clove oil (100% eugenol).

Animals—15 adult cultured red pacu (Piaractus brachypomus).

Procedure—Fish were exposed to each of 6 anesthetic concentrations in a within-subjects complete crossover design. Stages of anesthesia and recovery were measured, and physiologic data were collected before and during anesthesia.

Results—Interval to induction was more rapid and recovery more prolonged in fish exposed to eugenol, compared with those exposed to tricaine methanesulfonate. The margin of safety for eugenol was narrow, because at the highest concentration, most fish required resuscitation. Mixed venous-arterial PO2 consistently decreased with anesthesia, while PCO2 consistently increased with anesthesia in all fish regardless of anesthetic agent. The increase in PCO2 was accompanied by a decrease in pH, presumably secondary to respiratory acidosis. Anesthesia was associated with increased blood glucose, potassium, and sodium concentrations as well as Hct and hemoglobin. Fish anesthetized with eugenol were more likely to react to a hypodermic needle puncture than fish anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia induced with tricaine methanesulfonate or eugenol contributes to hypoxemia, hypercapnia, respiratory acidosis, and hyperglycemia in red pacu. Similar to tricaine methanesulfonate, eugenol appears to be an effective immobilization compound, but eugenol is characterized by more rapid induction, prolonged recovery, and a narrow margin of safety. Care must be taken when using high concentrations of eugenol for induction, because ventilatory failure may occur rapidly. In addition, analgesic properties of eugenol are unknown. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:337–342)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine responses of canine and feline lenses to incubation in a medium with a high glucose concentration.

Sample Population—Lenses from 35 dogs and 26 cats.

Procedure—Glucose concentrations were measured in paired lenses from 25 dogs and 17 cats after incubation for 14 days in high-glucose (30 mmol of glucose/ L) or control (6 mmol of glucose/L) medium. Aldose reductase activity was measured spectrophotometrically in the incubated lenses and in freshly frozen lenses from 10 dogs and 9 cats. Two lenses of each group were studied histologically.

Results—Canine and feline lenses in high-glucose medium developed glucose-specific opacities of variable localization and extent. Canine lenses developed equatorial vacuoles, but severity of the lesions was not associated with the age of the dog. Lenses from young cats (≤ 4 years old) developed extensive posterior cortical opacities, whereas those from older cats (> 4 years old) did not. Glucose concentrations were similar in all lenses incubated in high-glucose medium; however aldose reductase activity was significantly lower in lenses from older cats, compared with lenses from young cats and from dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High aldose reductase activity and glucose-related opacities suggest a central role for this enzyme in the pathogenesis of diabetic cataracts in dogs and cats. Because onset of diabetes mellitus usually occurs in cats > 7 years of age, low activity of aldose reductase in lenses of older cats may explain why diabetic cataracts are rare in this species despite hyperglycemia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1591–1597)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the effect of general anesthesia and minor surgery on renal function in horses.

Animals—9 mares with a mean (± SE) age and body weight of 9 ± 2 years and 492 ± 17 kg, respectively.

Procedure—The day before anesthesia, urine was collected (catheterization) for 3 hours to quantitate baseline values, and serum biochemical analysis was performed. The following day, xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, IV) was administered, and general anesthesia was induced 5 minutes later with diazepam (0.04 mg/kg, IV) and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg, IV). During 2 hours of anesthesia with isoflurane, PaCO2 was maintained between 48 and 52 mm Hg, and mean arterial blood pressure was between 70 and 80 mm Hg. Blood and urine were collected at 30, 60, and 120 minutes during and at 1 hour after anesthesia.

Results—Baseline urine flow was 0.92 ± 0.17 ml/kg/h and significantly increased at 30 and 60 minutes after xylazine administration (2.14 ± 0.59 and 2.86 ± 0.97 ml/kg/h respectively) but returned to baseline values by the end of anesthesia. Serum glucose concentration increased from 12 ± 4 to 167 ± 8 mg/dl at 30 minutes. Glucosuria was not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transient hyperglycemia and an increase in rine production accompanies a commonly used anesthetic technique for horses. The increase in urine flow is not trivial and should be considered in anesthetic management decisions. With the exception of serum glucose concentration and urine production, the effect of general anesthesia on indices of renal function in clinically normal horses is likely of little consequence in most horses admitted for elective surgical procedures. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1061–1065)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effects of prolonged feed deprivation on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and lipid homeostasis in llamas.

Animals—9 adult female llamas.

Procedure—On each of 2 consecutive days, food was withheld from the llamas for 8 hours. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after IV injection of dextrose (0.5 g/kg) for determination of plasma insulin and serum glucose, triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Between experimental periods, the llamas received supplemental amino acids IV (185 mg/kg in solution). The llamas were then fed a limited diet (grass hay, 0.25% of body weight daily) for 23 days, after which the experimental procedures were repeated.

Results—Feed restriction decreased glucose tolerance and had slight effects on insulin secretion in llamas. Basal lipid fractions were higher after feed restriction, but dextrose administration resulted in similar reductions in serum lipid concentrations with and without feed restriction. Insulin secretion was decreased on the second day of each study period, which lessened reduction of serum lipid concentrations but did not affect glucose tolerance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite having a comparatively competent pancreatic response, feed-restricted llamas assimilated dextrose via an IV bolus more slowly than did llamas on full rations. However, repeated administration of dextrose reduced insulin secretion and could promote hyperglycemia and fat mobilization. These findings suggested that veterinarians should use alternative methods of supplying energy to camelids with long-term reduced feed intake or consider administering agents to improve the assimilation of glucose. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:996–1001)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine molecular characteristics of Clostridium difficile isolates from foals with diarrhea and identify clinical abnormalities in affected foals.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—28 foals with C difficile-associated diarrhea.

Procedure—Toxigenicity, molecular fingerprinting, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were determined. Information on signalment, clinical findings, results of clinicopathologic testing, whether antimicrobials had been administered prior to development of diarrhea, and outcome was obtained from the medical records.

Results—Twenty-three (82%) foals survived. Toxin A and B gene sequences were detected in isolates from 24 of 27 foals, whereas the toxin B gene alone was detected in the isolate from 1 foal. Results of an ELISA for toxin A were positive for fecal samples from only 8 of 20 (40%) foals. Ten of 23 (43%) isolates were resistant to metronidazole. Molecular fingerprinting revealed marked heterogeneity among isolates, except for the metronidazole-resistant isolates. Sixteen foals had tachypnea. Hematologic abnormalities were indicative of inflammation. Common serum biochemical abnormalities included metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, azotemia, hypoproteinemia, hyperglycemia, and high enzyme activities. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies was adequate in all 12 foals evaluated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a large percentage of C difficile isolates from foals with diarrhea will have the toxin A and B gene sequences. Because of the possibility that isolates will be resistant to metronidazole, susceptibility testing is warranted. Clostridium difficile isolates from foals may have a substantial amount of molecular heterogeneity. Clinical and hematologic findings in affected foals are similar to those for foals with diarrhea caused by other pathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:67–73)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical examination findings, clinicopathologic abnormalities, and outcome of treatment in dairy cattle with abomasal impaction.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—80 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows ≥ 2 years old.

Procedure—Medical records of cattle with abomasal impaction admitted between 1980 and 2003 were retrieved, and data were extracted.

Results—All cows were reported to have decreased food intake; concurrent diseases were identified in 54 (68%). Seventeen cows did not have detectable ruminal motility, but physical examination findings were nonspecific and variable. In general, cattle had mild hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and hyperglycemia, but serum potassium and chloride concentrations were typically within reference limits. Fifty-five (69%) cattle had impaction of the pyloric antrum alone, and 25 (31%) had impaction of the abomasal body and pyloric antrum. Right flank laparotomy and abomasal massage were performed in 73 cattle. After surgery, 54 (74%) cattle received 3 to 4 L of mineral oil, PO, daily for 1 to 5 days. Short-term (ie, discharged from the hospital) survival rate was significantly higher for cows with impaction of the pyloric antrum alone (42/45 [93%]) than for cows with impaction of the body and antrum (12/24 [50%]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that physical examination findings and results of serum biochemical analyses do not facilitate the diagnosis of abomasal impaction in lactating Holstein cows and that exploratory right flank laparotomy is necessary to make the diagnosis. Abomasal impaction should be considered as a differential diagnosis for inappetence and poor milk production in lactating dairy cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:287–291)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess signalment, history, results of clinical and laboratory testing, and outcome for beef cattle with a left displaced abomasum (LDA), right displaced abomasum (RDA), or abomasal volvulus (AV).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—19 beef cattle with an AV, LDA, or RDA.

Procedure—Signalment; history; results of physical examination, diagnostic testing, and surgical exploration; and condition of the animal at discharge were obtained from medical records.

Results—Fourteen cattle had an AV, 4 had an RDA, and 1 had an LDA. Duration of clinical signs ranged from 1 to 21 days. Eighteen cattle had an AV or RDA; 7 were Brahmans, 12 were males, and median age was 10 months. Abdominal distention was observed in 11 cattle, heart rate of ≥ 100 beats/minute was detected in 14, and the abomasum was palpable per rectum in all cattle in which per rectal examination was performed. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hyperglycemia, azotemia, hypochloremia, and hypokalemia were common laboratory findings. At surgery, 3 cattle with an AV or RDA had a ruptured abomasum. Of the remaining 15 cattle, 12 survived.

Conclusions—Clinical course in beef cattle with an AV or RDA was more protracted than that typically associated with these conditions in dairy cattle, but survival rate in beef cattle that did not have rupture of the abomasum was sim ilar to that of dairy cattle.

Clinical Relevance—Abomasal displacement should be considered for beef cattle with abdominal distention. Prognostic indicators recommended for use in dairy cattle may not be useful for beef cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:730–733)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of acarbose on baseline and postprandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy dogs, if effects of acarbose were dosage related, and if acarbose caused any short-term adverse effects.

Animals

5 healthy dogs fed a high-fiber diet.

Procedure

A Latin-square design was used. During each 1-week treatment period, dogs were given a placebo or 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg of acarbose, PO, twice daily immediately prior to feeding. There was a 1-week interval between periods. At the end of each treatment period, serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured prior to feeding and at 30- to 60-minute intervals for 6 hours after feeding.

Results

Baseline serum glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin peak response, and total glucose absorption were not significantly different following treatment with placebo and treatment with acarbose; however, total insulin secretion was significantly decreased when dogs were treated with 100 or 200 mg of acarbose. Four dogs developed soft to watery stools when treated with 200 mg of acarbose, and 2 dogs lost weight during the study. Results of CBC and serum biochemical analyses were within reference ranges throughout the study.

Conclusions

Acarbose did not induce any serious adverse effects and was effective in healthy dogs in reducing total postprandial insulin secretion when administered immediately prior to meals.

Clinical Relevance

Results suggest that acarbose may help control hyperglycemia in dogs with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Additional studies designed to evaluate the effect of acarbose on postprandial blood glucose concentrations in dogs with diabetes mellitus are indicated. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:541–545)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, prevalence of concurrent disease, treatment, complications of treatment, and outcome in cats with diabetic ketosis (DK) or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

42 cats with DK or DKA.

Procedure—

Medical records of diabetic cats with ketonuria were reviewed.

Results—

In 26 cats, diabetes was newly diagnosed; in 16, diabetes had been diagnosed previously and cats had been treated with insulin (n = 14) or sulfonylurea drugs (2). Common clinical findings were lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. Common laboratory findings were hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, low total CO2 content, hyperosmolality, high serum alanine transaminase activity, azotemia, glycosuria, and ketonuria. Concurrent disorders were identified in 39 cats and included hepatic lipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, pancreatitis, chronic renal failure, urinary tract infection, and neoplasia. Treatment of DK and DKA included administration of regular crystalline (34 cats), NPH (6), or ultralente (2) insulin, intravenous (38) or subcutaneous (4) administration of fluids, and enterall parenteral or administration of antibiotics (42). Complications during treatment included abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations (27 cats), hemolytic anemia (4), hypoglycemia (3), and neurologic abnormalities unrelated to hypoglycemia (2). Eleven cats died or were euthanatized during the initial hospitalization period for treatment of DK or DKA. Azotemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperosmolality were more severe in cats that died than in cats that survived. Differences in regard to treatment or complications were not apparent between cats that died and cats that survived. The 31 cats that survived were discharged 1 to 16 days (median, 5 days) after initiation of insulin treatment. Diabetic ketosis or ketoacidosis recurred in 13 (42%) of these cats.

Clinical Implications—

A thorough diagnostic evaluation should be performed on cats with DK or DKA to identify concurrent disorders, formulate an appropriate treatment plan, and provide prognostic information to the owner. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211: 188–192)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 35 cattle with small-intestinal volvulus were reviewed. Surgical correction was performed on 32 cattle, and 17 of these cattle were discharged from the hospital. Mean duration of clinical signs for survivors was not significantly different from that for nonsurvivors, and the most commonly recorded clinical signs were abdominal pain, anorexia, lethargy, abdominal distention, and dehydration. Physical examination of cattle with intestinal volvulus revealed tachycardia, tachypnea, and nor-mothermia. Rectal examination findings included distended small intestine, scant feces or mucus, and tight bands coursing dorsoventrally in the middle portion of the abdomen. Clinicopathologjc testingre-vealed azotemia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, and leukocytosis with a left shift. Nonsurvivors had significantly lower mean preoperative venous blood phi and mean base excess and higher mean serum potassium concentration than did survivors.

A diagnosis of volvulus of the entire small intestine was made during surgery in 25 cattle, whereas volvulus of the distal jejunum and ileum was diagnosed during surgery in 7 cattle. Survival rate following surgical correction of volvulus of the entire small intestine (44%) was not significantly different from survival rate following surgical correction of volvulus of the distal jejunum and ileum (86%). However, survival rate for dairy cattle (63%) was significantly higher than survival rate for beef cattle (22%).

To determine potential risk factors for the development of small-intestinal volvulus, epidemiologic data from cattle admitted to veterinary teaching hospitals throughout North America were collected by searching records entered into the Veterinary Medical Data Base. Between 1967 and 1991, 190 of 242,745 cattle had small-intestinal volvulus. Surgical correction was performed in 130 cattle, and 75 cattle were discharged from the hospital Among cattle seen at veterinary teaching hospitals, dairy cattle had an increased risk of developing small-intestinal volvulus, compared with beef cattle, and cattle > 7 years old had a decreased risk, compared with cattle < 2 months old. Female cattle were more likely to suffer from intestinal volvulus than were male cattle.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association