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animals has been studied, but to a much lesser extent than in humans. In cats, a significant increase in blood pressure was demonstrated in research colony cats when comparing a 24-hour radiotelemetric implant measurement in the colony environment with the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

as $18,200. 4 Children are the most likely people to be bitten by dogs, 5–8 and males are more likely to be bitten than females. 9,10 Scholars have acknowledged that the environment in which a dog lives impacts the dog's propensity to bite

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effect of an adulticide on flea populations of dogs and to evaluate efficacy of combined use of the adulticide and an insect growth regulator (IGR) in dogs with experimentally induced flea infestations.

Animals

40 adult Beagles.

Procedure

Each group of 5 dogs was housed in a separate room. Each dog was infested 3 times with 50 fleas, and fleas were counted beginning on day −21. Groups of dogs and treatments (initiated on day 0) were as follows: 1, adulticide once; 2, adulticide on days 0 and 7; 3, adulticide on days 0, 3, and 7; 4, sham treatment; 5, igr monthly; 6, igr monthly plus adulticide once weekly for 6 weeks; 7, igr monthly plus adulticide twice weekly for 6 weeks; 8, sham treatment. Flea counts were compared between treated and control dogs.

Results

By 24 hours after initial treatment, all adult fleas but 1 were dead in treated dogs. In groups 1 and 3, populations increased to 15 to 20 fleas/dog 2 months after treatment, compared with 48 fleas/dog in group 4. After treatment, mean flea counts were significantly lower for groups 1, 2, and 3, relative to group 4. Efficacy of treatment for group 5, relative to group 8, was > 94% after day 84. Efficacy of treatment for groups 6 and 7 was 99% after day 28.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Treatment with adulticide alone or in combination with an igr had better efficacy, compared with sham treatment or igr alone. Administration of adulticide twice weekly was not more efficacious than treatment once weekly, (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1122–1125)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare whole-body phenylalanine kinetics and the abundance of factors in signaling pathways associated with skeletal muscle protein synthesis and protein breakdown between horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and age-matched control horses without PPID.

Animals—12 aged horses (6 horses with PPID and 6 control horses; mean age, 25.0 and 25.7 years, respectively).

Procedures—Plasma glucose, insulin, and amino acids concentrations were determined before and 90 minutes after feeding. Gluteal muscle biopsy samples were obtained from horses 90 minutes after feeding, and the abundance and activation of factors involved in signaling pathways of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown were determined. The next day, horses received a priming dose and 2 hours of a constant rate infusion of 13C sodium bicarbonate followed by a priming dose and 4 hours of a constant rate infusion of 1-13C phenylalanine IV; whole-body protein synthesis was determined.

Results—Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were higher after feeding than they were before feeding for both groups of horses; however, no significant postprandial increase in plasma amino acids concentrations was detected for either group. Phenylalanine flux, oxidation, release from protein breakdown, and nonoxidative disposal were not significantly different between groups. No significant effect of PPID status was detected on the abundance or activation of positive or negative regulators of protein synthesis or positive regulators of protein breakdown.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that whole-body phenylalanine kinetics and the postprandial activation of signaling pathways that regulate protein synthesis and breakdown in muscles were not affected by PPID status alone in aged horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with fish age, especially during early life stages. Otolith shape and dimension can also be related to geographic location, ocean depth, and chemical and physical qualities of the environment. 24–26 The use of radiography to study otoliths in teleost

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

impossible owing to the temperament of wild marine mammals, the aquatic environment that immediately dilutes the topical agent, and the requirement for frequent treatment. By contrast, oral administration of medications to pinnipeds is relatively simple and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

reveal that positive team environments enhance job satisfaction, improve well-being, and provide better role clarity for employees. 2,3 Conversely, negative team environments have been associated with team members becoming stressed, frustrated, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine baseline tear pH in dogs, horses, and cattle by use of a microelectrode.

Animals—28 dogs, 24 horses, and 29 cattle.

Procedures—Under manual restraint, tears were collected from each subject's left eye with cotton spears. A Schirmer tear test was performed in the right eye. Tears were extracted from the spears by centrifugation. Tear volume was measured, pH was determined with a microelectrode, and total solids (TS) concentration was measured by refractometry.

Results—Mean ± SD pH of tears in cattle, dogs, and horses was 8.32 ± 0.14, 8.05 ± 0.26, and 7.84 ± 0.30, respectively. Tear pH was significantly higher in cattle versus dogs and horses and in dogs versus horses. Mean ± SD TS concentration in horses, cattle, and dogs was 2.04 ± 1.29 g/dL, 1.07 ± 0.60 g/dL, and 0.33 ± 0.18 g/dL, respectively. Total solids concentration was significantly higher in horses versus cattle and dogs and in cattle versus dogs. Schirmer tear test results for all animals were within the species reference range.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tear pH in all 3 species differed from that of published blood pH values and the pH of common topically administered ophthalmic medications. These fndings may have implications for variations in ocular flora and defense mechanisms, susceptibility to ocular disease, and success or comfort of topical treatment.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the dose of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) needed to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and congestive heart failure (CHF).

ANIMALS

18 dogs with CHF due to MMVD and 12 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, dogs with MMVD were given 50 or 100 mg of water-soluble CoQ10 (ubiquinone; total daily dose, 100 mg [n = 5] or 200 mg [6]) or a placebo (7), PO, twice a day for 2 weeks in addition to regular cardiac treatment. Plasma CoQ10 concentration was measured in dogs with MMVD before (baseline) and at various time points after supplementation began and in healthy dogs once. Concentrations were compared among and within groups.

RESULTS

No significant difference in median baseline plasma CoQ10 concentration was detected between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Fold increases in plasma CoQ10 concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 4.7 and 3.2 to 6.8 for individual dogs in the 100-mg and 200-mg groups, respectively. The change in plasma CoQ10 concentration after supplementation began was significantly higher than in the placebo group at 4 hours and 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 200-mg group and at 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 100-mg group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A daily CoQ10 dose of 200 mg was sufficient to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration and may be used in CoQ10 supplementation studies involving dogs with CHF due to MMVD.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association