Search Results

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 369 items for :

  • "colostrum" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

In the report “Effect of a plasma-derived colostrum replacement feeding program on adult performance and longevity in Holstein cows” ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;236:1230–1237), 2 of the values given in Table 1 are incorrect. In Table 1, the

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Fifty-four neonatal pigs were allotted to 4 groups and reared in an electrically controlled automatic feeding device (autosow). Each group was reared on a different pool of bovine colostrum: fresh, stored 1 month, stored 6 months, and stored 8 years. Bovine and porcine immunoglobulins in the sera of these pigs, and in a group of conventionally reared pigs, were measured periodically during the first 42 days after birth. The maximal concentration of absorbed bovine immunoglobulin was reached between 12 and 18 hours and equaled or exceeded the amount of porcine immunoglobulin absorbed by the conventionally reared pigs. Large differences in the concentrations of the bovine immunoglobulin isotypes among the various pools of colostrum were positively correlated with concentration of these isotypes in the sera of the neonatal pigs fed these pools. Relative to their concentrations in colostrum, approximately 41% of the IgGl, 55% of the IgG2, 29% of the IgM, and 67% of the IgA was absorbed. The IgA was absorbed the best and IgM was least absorbed. Significant trends or differences in absorption were not observed among groups. Neonatal pigs given fresh colostrum, which had a higher fat content, had significantly more weight gain (P < 0.05). This occurred, despite the fact that the fresh colostrum had the lowest concentration of bovine immunoglobulin. Serum half-lives for bovine IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly less than for porcine IgG (P < 0.05), whereas the half-lives for bovine and porcine IgM and IgA were similar.

De novo-synthesized immunoglobulins were detectable in serum after 6 days; IgM concentrations reached a maximum at 15 days in neonatal pigs given stored, but not fresh, colostrum. The IgG and IgA concentrations steadily increased in all groups and were highest on day 42, when the study was terminated. Neonatal pigs ingesting fresh colostrum had significantly lower concentrations of de novo-synthesized IgG and IgA than pigs fed stored colostrum (P < 0.05). Concentrations in these pigs were also lower than those in conventionally reared pigs. This occurred, despite the lower immunoglobulin concentration in fresh colostrum, and correspondingly, the lower amount of bovine immunoglobulin in pigs that received this colostrum and absorbed it into their serum. In most instances, the amounts of immunoglobulin of any isotype absorbed from stored colostrum and the amount of de novo-synthesized immunoglobulin present 6 weeks later, were inversely correlated. Data indicated that a storage-labile, nonimmunoglobulin factor, in bovine colostrum is able to suppress de novo IgG and IgA synthesis by neonatal pigs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Ten colostrum-deprived calves were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (5 calves/group), and fed colostrum that had either low (naturally infected cows) or high (immunized cows) antibody titers to bovine coronavirus (bcv). All calves were inoculated orally and intranasally with virulent bcv when they were 24 to 48 hours old and challenge exposed 21 days later. Blood, feces, nasal secretions, tears, saliva, and bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) fluids were collected weekly from each calf for 5 weeks after inoculation. The titers to whole bcv or the relative amounts of isotype-specific antibodies to bcv structural proteins were evaluated in these samples by ELISA or immunoblotting, respectively.

Both pools of colostrum contained primarily IgG1, IgG2, and IgA antibodies to the E2 and E3 bcv proteins. Calves fed the high-titer colostrum had correspondingly higher amounts of passive IgG1 and IgA antibodies to whole bcv and to the E2 and E3 bcv proteins in serum, feces, and bal fluid at postinoculation week 1 than those calves fed low-titer colostrum. Active IgG1, IgA, and IgM antibody responses in serum and active IgA and IgM antibody responses in most mucosal secretions to whole bcv and to the E2 and E3 proteins were lower or delayed in calves fed high-titer colostrum, compared with responses in calves fed low-titer colostrum. In contrast, increased responses to the bcv N protein were observed in all samples (except in serum and bal fluid) in the calves fed high-titer colostrum, compared with calves fed low-titer colostrum. Upon challenge exposure, responses to E2 and E3 bcv proteins in serum and bal fluid were lower in the group fed high-titer colostrum, compared with those in the group fed low-titer colostrum.

Our findings indicate that the level of passive immunity in calves at the time of bcv inoculation can influence the development of active antibody responses in serum, feces, and mucosal secretions to whole bcv and to some bcv proteins individually.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Ten foals of various breeds were deprived of colostrum from birth to 36 hours of age, then were allotted to 2 groups. Foals of group 1 (n = 6) were given 20 g (200 ml) of purified equine IgG iv in a 10% solution, and foals of group 2 (n = 4) were given 30 g (300 ml) of the same preparation. Total administration time for each 10 g of IgG in 100 ml was approximately 10 minutes. Serum IgG concentration in foals was assessed prior to, between 24 and 48 hours, and at 7 and 14 days after IgG administration.

Between 24 and 48 hours after IgG administration, mean serum IgG concentration in group-1 foals was 425 mg/dl (range, 350 to 480 mg/dl). Mean body weight for this group of foals was 50.3 kg (range, 43.3 to 54.7 kg).

For group-2 foals, mean serum IgG concentration was 768 mg/dl (range, 640 to 920 mg/dl) between 24 and 48 hours after administration of IgG. Foals of this group had mean body weight of 43.2 kg (range, 36.5 to 47.5 kg). Serum IgG concentration in group-2 foals at 24 to 48 hours was significantly (P = 0.005) greater than that in group- 1 foals.

Mean total IgG recovery at 24 to 48 hours, calculated on the basis of 94.5 ml of plasma volume/kg of body weight, was approximately 100%.

Values of IgG measured in all foals 1 and 2 weeks after administration of the IgG concentrate were equivalent to values expected after normal decay of passively acquired IgG. Mild, adverse reactions occurred in 3 of the 10 foals treated (1 group-1 foal and 2 group-2 foals).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Icterus condemnations compose a substantial proportion (41%) of total condemnations of bob veal, the class of veal composed of calves < 3 weeks old and weighing up to 68 kg. At postmortem examination, bob veal condemned because of icterus have generalized yellow discoloration of tissues, which is commonly associated with large, yellow liver (fatty liver), and a paucity of other gross pathologic changes. To establish that the generalized yellow discoloration was attributable to high tissue bilirubin concentrations and to examine the underlying mechanism(s) that might be responsible, blood samples and tissue specimens were obtained from clinically normal and icteric bob veal calves at slaughter. For comparison, blood samples were collected from clinically normal, 1- to 5-day-old Holstein calves being raised on local dairy farms. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were obtained for the 3 groups of calves (normal local, normal slaughter, and icteric slaughter), and tissues of slaughter calves were examined for histologic evidence of inflammatory or degenerative changes. Mean ± sd total bilirubin concentration and creatine kinase (ck) activity in icteric bob veal (3.3 ± 0.8 mg/dl; 869 ± 788 U/L), normal bob veal (1.4 ± 0.7 mg/dl; 486 ± 890 U/L), and normal local calves (0.5 ± 0.2 mg/dl; 156 ± 158 U/L) were significantly different. When data for both normal and icteric bob veal calf groups were combined for analysis, total bilirubin concentration regressed significantly on hepatic lipid scores (P = 0.00003) and ck activity (P = 0.00049). Colostrum consumption was determined by measuring serum total protein concentration and serum γ-glutamyltransferase activity. Bob veal calves that had not consumed colostrum had significantly higher total bilirubin (P = 0.00005) and ck (P = 0.0008) values. It was concluded that normal and icteric bob veal calves have significant increase in total bilirubin concentration, and icterus of bob veal calves is secondary to unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Lack of colostrum consumption was strongly correlated with icterus in bob veal calves.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine kinetics of antibody absorption, persistence of antibody concentrations, and influence of titers on vaccination of baby pigs with a vaccine against classical swine fever (CSF).

Animals—15 sows and their litters.

Procedure—Farrowings were supervised. Initial time of suckling was recorded. In the first experiment, blood samples were collected at farrowing, 2 and 4 hours after suckling, and hourly until 10 hours after initial suckling. Samples were assayed for CSF antibodies, using a serum neutralizing (SN) test. A second experiment included 33 baby pigs vaccinated as follows: 10 prior to ingestion of colostrum, 18 between 1 and 4 hours after ingestion of colostrum, and 5 at 12 hours after ingestion of colostrum. Fourteen pigs were vaccinated when 7 weeks old, and 15 pigs were not vaccinated. At 10 weeks of age, pigs were challenge- exposed with virulent CSF virus. Blood samples were collected and assayed for CSF antibodies and p125 antigen and p125 antibodies.

Results—CSF antibodies were detected in pigs beginning 2 hours after suckling. Colostral antibodies persisted for > 7 weeks (half-life, 7.9 days). Vaccination of pigs before suckling provided effective protection from severe disease after challenge-exposure. However, vaccination of neonates with antibody titers was not effective, because 19 of 23 (82%) pigs succumbed after challenge-exposure. All pigs vaccinated when 7 weeks old resisted challenge-exposure, whereas all unvaccinated control pigs succumbed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination before ingestion of colostrum conferred good protection against CSF in baby pigs. Vaccination of 7-weekold pigs that had decreasing concentrations of passively acquired antibodies was efficacious. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1805–1811)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop models that could be used to predict, for dairy calves, the age at which colostrumderived bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies would no longer offer protection against infection or interfere with vaccination.

Design—Prospective observational field study.

Animals—466 calves in 2 California dairy herds.

Procedure—Serum BVDV neutralizing antibody titers were measured from birth through 300 days of age. The age by which colostrum-derived BVDV antibodies had decayed sufficiently that calves were considered susceptible to BVDV infection (ie, titer ≤ 1:16) or calves became seronegative was modeled with survival analysis methods. Mixed-effects regression analysis was used to model colostrum-derived BVDV antibody titer for any given age.

Results—Half the calves in both herds became seronegative for BVDV type I by 141 days of age and for BVDV type II by 114 days of age. Rate of antibody decay was significantly associated with antibody titer at 1 to 3 days of age and with whether calves were congenitally infected with BVDV. Three-month-old calves were predicted to have a mean BVDV type-I antibody titer of 1:32 and a mean BVDV type-II antibody titer of 1:16.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provide an improved understanding of the decay of BVDV-specific colostrum-derived antibodies in dairy calves raised under typical field conditions. Knowledge of the age when the calf herd becomes susceptible can be useful when designing vaccination programs aimed at minimizing negative effects of colostrum-derived antibodies on vaccine efficacy while maximizing overall calf herd immunity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:678–685)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Effects of selenium (Se) deficiency and supplementation on production of colostral immunoglobulins by beef cows and transfer of antigen-specific and nonspecific immunoglobulins to their calves were examined. Eighty beef cows, with marginal to deficient Se status (blood Se concentration, 50 μg/L), were allotted by breed and age to 1 of 4 Se treatment groups (n = 20/group): no supplemental Se; parenteral administration of 0.1 mg of Se and 1 mg of vitamin E/kg of body weight; ad libitum consumption of 120 mg of Se/kg of salt-mineral mix (smm); and parenteral administration of 0.1 mg of Se and 1 mg of vitamin E/kg plus ad libitum consumption of 120 mg of Se/kg of smm. All cows were inoculated IM with lysozyme. Cows consumed Se-deficient pastures or hay (21 to 62 μg/kg) during the study that began at mid-gestation and ended at postpartum hour 24. Although the concentration of specific lysozyme antibodies was not affected, cows given 120 mg of Se/kg of smm (treatments 3 and 4) had higher colostral IgG concentration (P < 0.002) than did Se-deficient cows (treatments 1 and 2). Calves from cows in treatments 3 and 4 had higher postsuckle serum concentrations of IgG (P < 0.01) than did calves from cows in treatments 1 and 2. Colostral IgM and calf serum IgM concentrations did not differ among treatments.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate in vitro antigenic relations, in vivo cross-protection, and isotype antibody responses to a winter dysentery (WD) and calf diarrhea strain of bovine coronavirus (BCV).

Design and Animals

Gnotobiotic and colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated oronasally with a WD (DBA) or a calf diarrhea (DB2) BCV, and were challenge exposed with the heterologous BCV.

Procedure

Nasal swab and feces specimens and blood samples were collected. Fecal and nasal specimens were assayed for BCV shedding by antigen-capture ELISA or immune electron microscopy. Bovine coronavirus antigens were detected in nasal epithelial cells by immunofluorescence. Antibody titers to BCV in serum were assayed by virus neutralization (VN), and BCV antibody isotype titers in feces and sera were quantitated by ELISA.

Results

All calves developed diarrhea and shed BCV nasally and in feces, then recovered and were protected from BCV-associated diarrhea after challenge exposure with the heterologous BCV. After challenge exposure with either strain, fecal shedding of DBA was detected in 1 of 4 calves and nasal shedding of DB2 was detected in 2 of 4 calves. Immunoglobulin M was the principal coproantibody to BCV early, followed predominantly by IgA. Immunoglobulin G1 coproantibody titers to BCV were low, but increased after challenge exposure. Immunoglobulin G1 antibodies were predominant in serum. After challenge exposure, all serum antibody isotype titers increased except IgG2. The VN antibody responses paralleled serum IgG1, antibody responses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Immunoglobulin A coproantibodies at challenge exposure were associated with protection against diarrhea. Nasal shedding of BCV after challenge exposure confirmed field data documenting reinfection of the respiratory tract of cattle, suggesting that, in closed herds, respiratory tract infections constitute a source of BCV transmission to cows (WD) or young calves. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:48-53)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In the article “Evaluation of the association between fecal excretion of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and detection in colostrum and on teat skin surfaces of dairy cows” ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;238:94–100), Judith R. Stabel

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association