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— Photographs of a 12-month-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat cadaver illustrating the procedure for implantation of an HO via ventral midline celiotomy. A—The urethra was isolated by means of blunt dissection of periurethral tissues approximately 2 cm

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the efficacy of laparoscopic adhesiolysis in the treatment of experimentally induced adhesions in foals.

Animals—8 healthy pony foals.

Procedure—Celiotomy was performed and adhesions created at the jejunoileal junction and at sites 0.5 and 1 m proximal to this junction, using a serosal abrasion method. Ten days after celiotomy, exploratory laparoscopy was performed. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was performed in the treatment group only (4 foals, randomly selected). Thirty days after the exploratory laparoscopy, a final laparoscopic examination was performed, and the foals were euthanatized. The number and characteristics of abdominal adhesions were recorded during laparoscopy 10 and 30 days after celiotomy and during necropsy.

Results—At 30 days after celiotomy, the number of adhesions in the control group was significantly higher than the number in the treatment group. In the control group, all adhesions observed during the exploratory laparoscopy were still evident at the final laparoscopy and necropsy. In the treatment group, adhesions did not form again after separation. During final laparoscopy and necropsy, a focal adhesion between the omentum and site of the initial laparoscope portal was observed in 5 of 8 foals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The serosal abrasion model is useful for studying abdominal adhesions in foals. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was an effective technique to break down experimentally induced adhesions in the early maturation stage of formation in pony foals. Studies are required to investigate prevention of de novo adhesions at the laparoscope portal sites. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:289–294)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To report clinical findings for New World camelids with uterine torsion and to compare results of 3 methods of correction.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

11 llamas and 3 alpacas with 20 uterine torsions.

Procedure

Information concerning history, clinical signs, management, and postpartum complications was retrieved from medical records. Information concerning subsequent reproductive performance was obtained by telephone interview of owners.

Results

Uterine torsion was corrected by celiotomy (n = 7), transvaginal manipulation (5), or rolling the dam (8). Direction of 19 of 20 torsions was clockwise when viewed from the rear. Retention of fetal membranes was reported for 5 camelids that underwent celiotomy, but was not reported in camelids after nonsurgical correction. The uterus prolapsed in 1 llama that underwent celiotomy and in another that underwent the rolling technique. Although 2 camelids that underwent celiotomy subsequently failed to conceive, all camelids treated by nonsurgical techniques conceived.

Clinical Implications

Uterine torsion in camelids may be diagnosed by methods similar to those used in cattle. Surgical and nonsurgical methods can be used to correct torsion, and postpartum complications are rare when torsion is corrected by a nonsurgical method. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:600–602)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

  • Uterine torsion in pregnant mares generally occurs during the later stages of gestation.

  • Uterine torsion causes signs of abdominal pain that may be mistaken for gastrointestinal tract obstruction; however, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, such as small intestinal incarceration or large colon torsion, can occur in conjunction with uterine torsion.

  • Correction of torsion of the uterus may involve a rolling technique, flank laparotomy, or ventral midline celiotomy.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Postoperative abdominal fluid changes were compared in 2 groups of horses; those undergoing double small-colon resection and anastomosis (n = 10) and those undergoing exploratory celiotomy alone (n = 5). Peritoneal fluid was collected before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Total and differential nucleated cell counts, rbc numbers, and total protein and fibrinogen concentrations were evaluated. In both groups, all values were significantly higher than normal on the first postoperative day (after small-colon resection and anastomoses, wbc = 130,350 ± 23,310 cells/µl, rbc = 7,389,000 ± 6,234,000 cells/µl, total protein = 3.63 ± 0.16 g/dl; after exploratory celiotomy alone, wbc = 166,620 ± 34,340 cells/µl, rbc = 295,000 ± 86,070 cells/µl, total protein 4.38 ± 0.54 g/dl). The number of total peritoneal nucleated cells and rbc significantly decreased after the first postoperative day, whereas total protein and fibrinogen concentrations, percent neutrophils, and percent mononuclear cells remained unchanged. None of the values had returned to normal by postoperative day 7 (after small-colon resection and anastomoses, wbc = 45,600 ± 8,765 cells/µl, rbc= 95,390 ± 53,380 cells/µl, total protein = 4.39 ± 0.23 g/dl; after exploratory celiotomy alone, wbc= 43,340 ± 7,746 cells/µl, rbc = 12,860 ± 11,790 cells/µl, total protein = 3.92 ± 2.20 g/dl.) The resection and anastomosis group had a significantly lower total protein concentration on the first postoperative day and a significantly higher mean total rbc count over the entire 7-day postoperative evaluation than did horses that underwent celiotomy alone. Other values in the 2 groups of horses did not differ significantly. As a result, there was insufficient evidence to conclude that resection and anastomosis of the small colon in healthy horses causes a different inflammatory response than does manipulation of the intestine alone.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intoxication were lower for cattle examined after 1985 than for cattle examined before this time. See PAGE 955 Comparison between coelioscopy and coeliotomy for liver biopsy in channel catfish Ventral midline celiotomy has been advocated for many

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Case records of 200 horses treated with metronidazole were reviewed. Horses were treated for respiratory tract infections (90 cases), peritonitis or abdominal abscess (39 cases), celiotomy (49 cases), orthopedic infections (6 cases), and miscellaneous soft tissue infections (16 cases). Bacteria of the genus Bacteroides were most prevalent (55 of 167 anaerobic isolates). Metronidazole was always used in combination with other antimicrobial drugs.

Only 4 of the 200 horses had signs of adverse effects associated with metronidazole treatment. Those 4 horses had poor appetite that resolved when metronidazole treatment was discontinued.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Of 1,345 cats admitted for orchiectomy during a 10-year period, 23 (1.7%) were cryptorchid and 2(0.1%) were monorchid. Persian cats were overrepresented in the cryptorchid population (P = 0.01). Cats were more likely to be unilaterally than bilaterally cryptorchid (P = 0.01). A predisposition for location of undescended testes (abdominal vs inguinal or right vs left side) was not identified in unilateral cryptorchids. All bilateral cryptorchids had abdominally located testes. The most common surgical approaches used for orchiectomy of cryptorchid cats were a caudal ventral midline incision for inguinal testes and a caudal ventral midline celiotomy for abdominal testes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Adrenocortical tumors were diagnosed in 5 adult spayed ferrets. Four ferrets had bilaterally symmetrical alopecia of the caudal femoral region, abdomen, and tail, and 1 had alopecia of the distal limbs and feet. All 5 ferrets had vulvar swelling. During abdominal ultrasonography, irregular masses, believed to involve the adrenal glands, were seen in all 5 ferrets. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed successfully in each ferret by use of ventral midline celiotomy. On histologic examination of biopsy samples, 4 ferrets were found to have adrenocortical adenomas, and 1 ferret was found to have an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. All clinical signs resolved after adrenalectomy, suggesting that the adrenocortical tumors had been secreting adrenocortical hormones.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An 8-year-old castrated male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of abdominal distension, retching, and vomiting.

Clinical Findings—Gastric dilatation-volvulus was suspected on the basis of the dog's signalment, history, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic analyses and abdominal radiography. Celiotomy was performed, and gastric dilatation-volvulus was confirmed along with splenomegaly. Gastric invagination was performed over an area of gastric necrosis. The dog was reevaluated 21 days later after an episode of collapse. Findings of physical examination and clinicopathologic analyses were suggestive of internal hemorrhage. Abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent celiotomy revealed severe gastric ulceration at the gastric invagination site, splenic torsion, and a focal splenic infarct.

Treatment and Outcome—Splenectomy and gastrectomy of the necrotic tissue were performed. The dog was discharged from the hospital, and the owner was instructed to administer gastroprotectants and feed the dog a bland diet. The dog was reported to be healthy 3.25 years after surgery.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that complications associated with the gastric invagination procedure include severe gastric ulceration that may require subsequent surgery. Prolonged treatment with gastroprotectants following gastric invagination surgery may be necessary to avoid gastric ulceration in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association