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Calcium oxalate or magnesium ammonium phosphate (ie, struvite) are the 2 most common mineral types found in uroliths of dogs in North America and Europe. 1–5 Descriptive and case-control studies of urolithiasis in dogs have revealed consistent

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads are available commercially as a delivery system for sustained release of carboplatin and are intended for implantation at sites of gross tumor or marginal tumor extirpation. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate is a proven depot

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine effect of prophylactic treatment of dairy cattle with a calcium chloride gel on serum calcium concentration in the immediate postpartum period and incidence of parturient paresis, retained fetal membranes, and displacement of the abomasum.

Design

Randomized controlled trial.

Animals

204 Holstein cows.

Procedure

Cows were paired according to parity, whether they had previously had parturient paresis, and expected calving date. Cows in the treatment group received doses of calcium chloride gel 12 hours before expected calving, at calving, and 12 and 24 hours after calving. Cows in the control group did not receive calcium chloride gel.

Results

Compared with concentration in the control cows, mean serum calcium concentration in cows treated with calcium chloride gel was significantly increased on postcalving days 1 and 2. The increase was significant only in cows that were third parity or greater. Calcium chloride gel treatment also resulted in significantly reduced incidence of parturient paresis, parturient hypocalcemia, and displaced abomasum. The incidence of parturient paresis was lower in cows that received the precalving dose of calcium chloride gel (0/39) than in cows that did not receive the precalving dose (6/63).

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that periparturient prophylactic treatment of dairy cattle with an oral calcium chloride gel may be beneficial and that treatment would be most effective for cows of third parity or greater. Administration of a precalving dose of calcium chloride gel is necessary to reduce the incidence of parturient paresis, but postcalving treatment alone has other beneficial effects. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:958-961)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that breed, age, sex, body condition, and environment are risk factors for development of calcium oxalate uroliths in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—1,074 dogs that formed calcium oxalate uroliths and 1,724 control dogs that did not have uroliths.

Procedure—A validated multiple-choice questionnaire was designed to collect information from veterinarians and owners within 1 year of the date of urolith detection concerning signalment and environment of the dogs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios to assess whether breed, age, sex, body condition, and environment were risk factors for calcium oxalate urolith formation.

Results—Middle-aged (8- to 12-year-old) castrated male dogs had increased risk for formation of calcium oxalate uroliths. Urolith formation was also associated with increasing age. Dogs of certain breeds, including Miniature and Standard Schnauzer, Lhasa Apso, Yorkshire Terrier, Bichon Frise, Shih Tzu, and Miniature and Toy Poodle, had increased risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths. Overweight dogs also had increased risk.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of patient and environmental risk factors for development of calcium oxalate uroliths may facilitate development of surveillance strategies that result in earlier detection of this disease. Modification of environmental factors and body weight may minimize calcium oxalate urolith formation and recurrence. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:515–519)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether supplemental IV calcium administration would attenuate or prevent gentamicin-induced acute renal failure, defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration ≥ 50% above baseline.

Animals

10 healthy pony mares.

Procedure

Pony mares were randomly assigned to receive calcium at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight or saline solution IV, twice daily for 14 days. All pony mares received gentamicin at a dosage of 20 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for 14 days. Gentamicin pharmacokinetic, serum biochemical, and urinalysis data were measured every other day for the 14-day study period. Renal histologic examination was performed, and results were scored at the end of the 14-day period.

Results

4 of 5 mares not receiving calcium supplementation developed acute renal failure. Only 1 of the 5 mares receiving calcium supplementation developed acute renal failure. Over the course of the study, pony mares receiving calcium supplementation had significantly fewer changes in urinalysis variables, and significantly less microscopic renal damage.

Conclusion

Daily IV administration of calcium attenuated gentamicin-induced acute renal failure.

Clinical Relevance

Calcium supplementation may help diminish the risk of acute renal failure associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1055–1062)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the effects of halothane and isoflurane on cardiovascular function and serum total and ionized calcium concentrations in horses, and to determine whether administration of calcium gluconate would attenuate these effects.

Animals

6 clinically normal adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure

Catheters were inserted for measurement of arterial blood pressures, pulmonary arterial blood pressures, right ventricular pressure (for determination of myocardial contractility), right atrial pressure, and cardiac output and for collection of arterial blood samples. Anesthesia was then induced with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and maintained with halothane or isoflurane. An IV infusion of calcium gluconate was begun 75 minutes after anesthetic induction; dosage of calcium gluconate was 0.1 mg/kg of body weight/min for the first 15 minutes, 0.2 mg/kg/min for the next 15 minutes, and 0.4 mg/kg/min for an additional 15 minutes. Data were collected before, during, and after administration of calcium gluconate.

Results

Halothane and isoflurane decreased myocardial contractility, cardiac index, and mean arterial pressure, but halothane caused greater depression than isoflurane. Calcium gluconate attenuated the anesthetic-induced depression in cardiac index, stroke index, and maximal rate of increase in right ventricular pressure when horses were anesthetized with isoflurane. When horses were anesthetized with halothane, a higher dosage of calcium gluconate was required to attenuate the depression in stroke index and maximal rate of increase in right ventricular pressure; cardiac index was not changed with calcium administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

IV administration of calcium gluconate may support myocardial function in horses anesthetized with isoflurane. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1430–1435)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

To evaluate underlying causes of calcium oxalate urolithiasis, 24-hour excretion of urine metabolites was measured in 6 Miniature Schnauzers that formed calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths during periods when they were fed a standard diet and during periods when food was withheld. Serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D also were evaluated. Serum calcium concentrations were normal in all 6 affected Miniature Schnauzers; however, during diet consumption, mean 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium was significantly (P = 0.025) higher than calcium excretion when food was withheld. In 1 dog, urinary calcium excretion was lower during the period of food consumption, compared with the period when food was withheld. Compared with clinically normal Beagles, Miniature Schnauzers that formed CaOx uroliths excreted significantly greater quantities of calcium when food was consumed (P = 0.0004) and when food was withheld (P = 0.001).

Miniature Schnauzers that formed CaOx uroliths excreted significantly less oxalate than clinically normal Beagles during fed (P = 0.028) and nonfed (P = 0.004) conditions. Affected Miniature Schnauzers also excreted abnormally high quantities of uric acid. Excretion of citrate was not different between Miniature Schnauzers with CaOx urolithiasis and clinically normal Beagles.

In 5 of 6 Miniature Schnauzers with CaOx urolithiasis, concentrations of serum parathyroid hormone were similar to values from age- and gender-matched Miniature Schnauzers without uroliths. The concentration of serum parathyroid hormone in 1 dog was > 4 times the mean concentration of clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers. Mean serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in Miniature Schnauzers with calcium oxalate urolithiasis were similar to concentrations of clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that feline calcium oxalate uroliths are intrinsically more resistant to comminution via shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) than canine calcium oxalate uroliths through comparison of the fragility of canine and feline uroliths in a quantitative in vitro test system.

Sample Population—Calcium oxalate uroliths (previously obtained from dogs and cats) were matched by size and mineral composition to create 7 pairs of uroliths (1 canine and 1 feline urolith/pair).

Procedure—Uroliths were treated in vitro with 100 shock waves (20 kV; 1 Hz) by use of an electrohydraulic lithotripter. Urolith fragmentation was quantitatively assessed via determination of the percentage increase in projected area (calculated from the digital image area of each urolith before and after SWL).

Results—After SWL, canine uroliths (n = 7) fragmented to produce a mean ± SD increase in image area of 238 ± 104%, whereas feline uroliths (7) underwent significantly less fragmentation (mean image area increase of 78 ± 97%). The post-SWL increase in fragment image area in 4 of 7 feline uroliths was < 50%, whereas it was > 150% in 6 of 7 canine uroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that feline calcium oxalate uroliths are less susceptible to fragmentation via SWL than canine calcium oxalate uroliths. In some cats, SWL may not be efficacious for fragmentation of calcium oxalate nephroliths or ureteroliths because the high numbers of shock waves required to adequately fragment the uroliths may cause renal injury. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1651–1654)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To evaluate dietary and environmental factors as potential risk factors for calcium oxalate urolithiasis in cats.

Design—

Case-control study.

Animals—

84 cats with uroliths composed of at least 90% calcium oxalate and 258 age- and gender-matched control cats.

Procedure—

Owners of cats with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and control cats were surveyed between November 1990 and August 1992. Owners completed a standard questionnaire administered during a single telephone interview. Data collected included information regarding signalment, environment, urination and defecation, diet, and medical history.

Results—

Calcium oxalate uroliths tended to develop in middle- to older-aged, domestic shorthair cats of typical weight. A gender predilection was not detected. Factors associated with an increase in the risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in cats were feeding urine-acidifying diets, feeding a single brand of cat food without providing additional foods or table scraps, maintaining cats in an indoor-only environment, and being of the Persian breed.

Clinical Implications—

Control of diet and environment may help prevent calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence and prognostic significance of low plasma ionized calcium concentration in cats with clinical signs of acute pancreatitis (AP).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—46 cats with AP and 92 control cats with nonpancreatic diseases.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and results of clinicopathologic testing, including plasma ionized and total calcium concentrations, acid-base values, and electrolyte concentrations, were recorded. Cats with AP were grouped on the basis of outcome (survived vs died or were euthanatized), and plasma ionized calcium concentrations, acid-base values, and electrolyte concentrations were compared between groups.

Results—Serum total calcium concentration was low in 19 (41%) cats with AP, and plasma ionized calcium concentration was low in 28 (61%). Cats with AP had a significantly lower median plasma ionized calcium concentration (1.07 mmol/L) than did control cats (1.12 mmol/L). Nineteen (41%) cats with AP died or were euthanatized; these cats had a significantly lower median plasma ionized calcium concentration (1.00 mmol/L) than did cats that survived (1.12 mmol/L). Ten of the 13 cats with AP that had plasma ionized calcium concentrations ≤ 1.00 mmol/L died or were euthanatized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that low plasma ionized calcium concentration is common in cats with AP and is associated with a poorer outcome. A grave prognosis and aggressive medical treatment are warranted for cats with AP that have a plasma ionized calcium concentration ≤ 1.00 mmol/L. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1105–1109)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association