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carpus, along with generalized atrophy of the left brachial and shoulder muscles. The dog was seen 1 week after initial examination for carpal arthrocentesis as well as FNA and biopsy of the swelling over the left distal antebrachium. In house

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Arthrocentesis is the standard collection method; however, the actual aspiration of the fluid can be done either neatly (ie, without dilution) or following addition of an intra-articular lavage solution. Although preaspiration lavage is a common procedure to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

these clinical signs were a result of the arthrocentesis process. However, it is also important to note that the commercially available dexmedetomidine formulation used in the current study is labeled for systemic administration and contains

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

), 21 (1 minute after tourniquet release), 25, and 30 minutes after completion of the infusion. Samples of synovial fluid (0.5 mL) were aseptically collected in lithium heparin tubes via arthrocentesis of the DIP joint by use of the dorsal approach at 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

contralateral joint served as a control for each assessment time to account for variation in the environmental temperature and potential diurnal variations in skin temperature. Arthrocentesis of the injected MCJ was aseptically performed at 0, 6, 12, 24, and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

assessments were performed by the same examiner (JAD). Synovial fluid WBC count and total protein concentration were evaluated by use of repeated arthrocentesis prior to injection on day 0 and at days 1, 3, and 7 after injection by means of an automated cell

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, Bullock MF , Ocello PJ , Clayton HM . Arthrocentesis of the temporomandibular joint in adult horses . Am J Vet Res . 2001 ; 62 ( 5 ): 729 - 733 . doi: 10.2460/ajvr.2001.62.729 27. Norvall A , Cota JG , Pusterla N , Cissell D

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

affected foot included radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations and arthrocentesis of the DIPJ of the lateral claw followed by cytologic evaluation of the collected synovial fluid. Evaluation of standard radiographic images of the right rear foot

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and marked joint effusion. Arthrocentesis of the left elbow joint was performed, and the synovial fluid obtained was submitted for cytologic analysis and aerobic bacterial culture. A fine-needle aspirate biopsy specimen of the thickened tissue that

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Treatment and Outcome Arthrocentesis was performed on the affected joint, and results of cytologic evaluation of the sample obtained indicated marked suppurative inflammation with moderate numbers of degenerative neutrophils and no definitively neoplastic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association