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Introduction Splenectomy is the treatment of choice for several disorders of the spleen in dogs, including, but not limited to, benign and malignant neoplasia, torsion, hematoma, rupture, infiltrative, and immune-mediated disease. 1 – 5 The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

completely neutralized. A titer > 1:10 was considered positive for anti-CSFV antibody. qRT-PCR assay A qRT-PCR assay was used to detect CSFV C strain copies in spleen lysates obtained from rabbits after they had been euthanized at 4 days after viral

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

samples of gill, liver, posterior kidney, anterior kidney, spleen, skin and muscle, and scales were collected and placed in sterile 1.5-mL microcentrifuge tubes. Tubes were stored at −80°C for later analysis. For fish euthanized 144 hours after

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

JPG file format and imported into image analysis software. b Regions of interest were drawn around the peripheral (mandibular, superficial cervical, and popliteal) lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. The intensity of these regions, determined with

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

enlarged spleen was detected during abdominal palpation. Other physical examination findings were unremarkable. A venous blood sample was collected and submitted for a CBC and serum biochemical analysis. The CBC revealed a slightly low mean corpuscular

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

enterica serotype Typhimurium was used and was > 99% pure. g Splenocytes Immediately following euthanasia, an approximately 5-cm 3 portion of fresh spleen was harvested from each of the 8 dogs. The spleen was stored in PBS solution on ice for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

evisceration of the spleen, and 1 animal had a perforated colon and was leaking feces into the peritoneal cavity. Information regarding interval from the evisceration event to admission was available for all 12 animals. Specific information was available for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop an aerosol exposure method for induction of brucellosis in rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ).

Animals—10 adult rhesus macaques.

Procedure—8 rhesus macaques were challenge exposed with 102 to 105 colony-forming units of Brucella melitensis 16M by use of an aerosol-exposure technique, and 2 served as control animals. All macaques were euthanatized 63 days after challenge exposure. Gross and microscopic lesions, bacterial burden in target organs, and histologic changes in tissues were evaluated.

Results—Grossly, spleen weights were increased in exposed macaques, compared with spleen weights in control macaques. Histologically, there was inflammation in the liver, kidneys, spleen, testes, and epididymides in exposed macaques. The spleen and lymph nodes had increased numbers of lymphohistiocytic cells. Morphometrically, the spleen also had an increased ratio of white pulp to red pulp. Areas of hepatitis and amount of splenic white pulp increased with increasing exposure dose.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pathologic findings in rhesus macaques after aerosol exposure to B melitensis are similar to those observed in humans with brucellosis.

Impact for Human Medicine—These results may aid in the development of a vaccine against brucellosis that can be used in humans. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65: 644–652)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

animals with the linear transducer, but could not be reliably identified with the microconvex transducer. The hemipenes were visualized in 7 of 8 males. The adrenal glands and spleen were not identified in any animal. Weight of males was significantly ( P

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A study was conducted to determine the effect of monophosphoryl lipid A (mpl) and trehalose dimycolate (tdm) as adjuvants on the protective responses in balb/c mice vaccinated with Brucella abortus salt-extractable protein (bcsp) or proteinase-K-treated B abortus lipopolysaccharide (pklps). Mice were vaccinated with different doses of bcsp or pklps given alone or in combination with mpl or tdm. Mice were challenge-exposed 4 weeks later with virulent B abortus strain 2308. Two weeks after challenge exposure, the number of B abortus colony-forming units (cfu) per spleen, spleen weights, and spleen cell interleukin 1 production were measured. Serum IgG and IgM concentrations specific for vaccinal immunogens were measured before and after challenge exposure with B abortus.

Spleen weights and mean B abortus cfu per vaccine group were significantly lower in bcsp- and pklps-vaccinated mice, compared with those of nonvaccinated control mice. Monophosphoryl lipid A enhanced the suppression of splenic infection when given with the bcsp vaccine, but not when given with the pklps vaccine. Trehalose dimycolate had no effect on mean cfu when given with bcsp, but incorporation of tdm resulted in a significant increase in mean cfu when given with pklps. Spleen weights in bcsp- or pklps-vaccinated mice were not different when these vaccines were combined with mpl or tdm. Because of the wide variation in the results, we could not conclude that vaccination with bcsp or pklps alone, or in combination with mpl altered spleen cell interleukin-1 production in B abortus-infected mice. Increased host protection as defined by decreased cfu could not be related consistently to increased bcsp- or pklps-specific serum IgG or IgM antibodies introduced by any of the vaccines. These results do not eliminate a role for antibodies in the protection observed.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research