Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 187 items for :

  • "psittacines" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

Objective—To determine the reliability of plasma electrophoresis (EPH) in psittacine birds.

Animals—93 psittacine birds.

Procedure—Jugular venipuncture was performed on 93 awake psittacine birds. The plasma was centrifuged, separated, aliquoted into duplicate samples, frozen, and sent to 2 commercial laboratories that routinely perform avian EPH. Samples from 51 birds were sent to laboratory A, and samples from 42 birds were sent to laboratory B. The reliability of EPH results within each laboratory was assessed, but not between laboratories. To determine the reliability (agreement between duplicate samples) of total protein, albumin, prealbumin, α1-, α2-, β-, and γ-globulin concentrations, the intraclass correlation coefficient ( ri ) was calculated.

Results—Both laboratories had excellent agreement between samples for measurement of total protein concentration and only good agreement for albumin concentration. Except for the prealbumin concentration measured at laboratory B, both laboratories had poor agreement for all other values of the EPH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data indicate that plasma EPH for measuring prealbumin, α1-, α2-, β-, and γ-globulin concentrations may not be a reliable tool for assessing avian health. Small amounts of these proteins in birds plus human variation in reading the EPH curves may lead to variable results. Avian veterinarians should cautiously interpret results from plasma EPH assays for these protein fractions. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:375–378)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To produce monoclonal antibodies (MAB) with specificity for the heavy chain of macaw IgG; to incorporate these MAB into an ELISA to measure IgG responses of macaws inoculated with bovine serum albumin (BSA); and to evaluate the antigenicity of BSA in Blue and Gold Macaws.

Animals

Four 1-year-old Blue and Gold Macaws, 2 males and 2 females.

Procedure

1 male and 1 female 1 were randomly assigned to each of 2 study groups. Group-1 birds were inoculated with 200 μg of BSA on days 0, 14, 28, and 42. Group-2 birds were inoculated with 200 μg of BSA on days 0 and 28. Blood was collected weekly for measurement of anti-BSA titer. Hybridomas were prepared from mice immunized with Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) IgG purified by salt precipitation and gel chromatography. Specificity for IgG of Scarlet Macaw and other macaw species was confirmed by ELISA and western blot analysis. Hybridoma HL544 was cloned and the antibody purified. Following biotinylation, MAB HL544 was incorporated into an ELISA that measured IgG responses of macaws inoculated with BSA.

Results

Adult Blue and Gold Macaws developed strong primary and secondary anti-BSA antibody titers 14 days after inoculation with 200 μg of BSA. An inoculation interval of 28 days resulted in stronger secondary responses than an interval of only 14 days.

Conclusions

MAB specific for macaw immunoglobulins can be used in ELISA to evaluate the humoral immune responses of macaws. 1-year-old Blue and Gold Macaws developed strong anti-BSA titer when inoculated with 200 μg of BSA. An inoculation interval of 28 days resulted in stronger secondary responses than did an interval of only 14 days.

Clinical Relevance

These MAB, the first reported to have specificity for a psittacine antibody class, will be useful in the evaluation of psittacine antibody responses and in the development of psittacine diagnostic assays. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:1157-1161)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Hypothyroidism is 2 possible predisposing factor in a number of disorders of companion psittacine birds. We developed and validated a thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh) response testing protocol for cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), using 0.1 IU of tsh/bird given IM, with blood sample collection at 0 and 6 hours after tsh, and a commercial radioimmunoassay for thyroxine (T4). This protocol was used to document a seasonal sex difference in stimulated T4 values— females responded with higher T4 values than those in males in summer—and a stress-induced depression of baseline T4 values was detected in a group of cockatiels with normal tsh response. An experimental model for mature-onset hypothyroidism in cockatiels was created by radiothyroidectomizing cockatiels with 3.7 MBq (100 μCi) of 131I/bird given IV. Induction of the hypothyroid state was confirmed by baseline T4 concentration, tsh response test results, thyroid pertechnetate scintigraphy, and gross and microscopic examinations. Classical signs of hypothyroidism (eg, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, poor feathering) were lacking or mild at 48 days after thyroid ablation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To compare, in psittacines, the mydriatic effects of several topically applied curariform, sympathomimetic, and parasympatholytic drugs with and without the addition of surface-acting penetrating agents.

Design—

Prospective, randomized controlled trial.

Animals—

10 adult cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea subspecies), 2 adult African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and 3 adult Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aesiiva).

Procedure—

Three curariform drugs (d-tubocurarine, pancuronium, and vecuronium bromide) and 2 autonomic drugs (atropine and phenylephrine hydrochloride) were evaluated. Drugs were tested with and without the addition of a surface-acting penetrating agent, either saponin or benzalkonium chloride. The agent that resulted in the most significant change in pupillary diameter with the fewest systemic side effects in the cockatoos then was evaluated for its effects in the African gray parrots and the Blue-fronted Amazon parrots. During each drug trial, 1 eye was randomly selected to receive the control drug (0.9% NaCI), and the opposite eye was selected to receive the test drug. Each pupil was videotaped 5 (cockatoos only), 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes after treatment. Pupil diameters were measured by use of a computerized image analysis system. Data for pupil size were analyzed by means of repeated measures ANOVA.

Results—

Vecuronium without the addition of a surface-acting penetrating agent produced the most consistent and greatest pupillary dilatation in all 3 species with the fewest systemic side effects.

Clinical Implications—

Vecuronium is potentially a clinically useful, topical mydriatic agent for use in avian species. Documented differences in the prevalence of systemic side effects between species suggests that caution should be applied when applying this drug bilaterally. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:227-230)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The gross and microscopic lesions in the bird of this report were typical of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). This disease was first identified in macaws in the 1970s and is now known to affect psittacine birds worldwide. 1–4 Clinical signs

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

bond between owner and dog. See PAGE 896 Mucosal and seborrheic sites for staphylococci in two populations of captive psittacines Staphylococci have been commonly isolated from the skin of avian species, but the commensal cutaneous

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

signalment and history was provided. See page 1688 Prevalence of and risk factors associated with atherosclerosis in psittacine birds Information is lacking on the prevalence of and risk factors for atherosclerosis in psittacine birds. In a

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

atherosclerosis in pet psittacine birds Results of a new study suggest that infection with Chlamydophila psittaci and high plasma cholesterol concentration may be risk factors for atherosclerosis in pet psittacine birds. In the study, necropsy reports were

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

tumors were completely excised when only a 2-cm lateral margin and 1 fascial plane deep margin were used, and recurrence rate was similar to previously reported rates. Malesseziaorganisms on the skin of psittacine birds 216 Previous reports have

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To document the maternal transfer of IgG antibodies from Blue and Gold Macaw hens to chicks via the egg; to measure serum IgG half-life in macaw chicks; and to measure the ability of 2- to 10-week-old macaw chicks to generate primary and secondary IgG responses.

Procedure

4 adult Blue and Gold Macaw hens were inoculated with 200 μg of bovine serum albumin (BSA) every 21 days throughout the breeding season. Eggs laid by these hens were incubator hatched to eliminate the possibility of antibody transfer through crop secretions during feeding. Anti-BSA titer was measured just prior to each inoculation in hens and in chicks from 14 to 42 days of age. 1 chick from each of 5 macaw clutches hatched to nonimmunized hens was assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups. Group-1 chicks were inoculated with 200 μg of BSA at 2 and 6 weeks of age. Group-2 chicks were inoculated with 200 μg of BSA at 6 and 10 weeks of age. Anti-BSA titer was measured weekly for 8 weeks after primary inoculation.

Blood samples were centrifuged, and serum was harvested and frozen at −85 C until analyzed. Anti-BSA IgG titers were measured by ELISA. In the maternal transfer experiment, an exponential decay model was used to calculate the half-life of BSA antibodies in chicks. In the BSA antibody response experiment, comparison of primary and secondary anti-BSA responses of 2- and 6- week-old chicks was performed, using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA, with significance set at P < 0.05.

Results

Hens maintained high anti-BSA titer throughout the breeding season. Maternal transfer of anti-BSA IgG antibodies was documented in all 7 chicks. Anti-BSA titer in chicks decreased in exponential fashion with an average serum IgG half-life of 3.85 days. By 42 days of age, antibodies to BSA were virtually undetectable in all chicks. The primary antibody response of 6-week-old chicks was significantly higher than that of 2-week-old chicks (P = 0.016). No significant difference was observed in the magnitude of the secondary antibody responses between these age groups. Peak anti-BSA IgG antibody responses were reached by 14 days after primary and secondary immunization. Chicks of both age groups generated lower anti-BSA IgG titer than did adult Blue and Gold Macaws.

Conclusions

Blue and Gold Macaw hens transfer IgG antibodies to their chicks through the egg. The half-life of IgG in newly hatched chicks is approximately 3.85 days. 6-week-old chicks develop higher anti-BSA titers than do 2-week-old chicks, but significantly lower titers than do adult macaws.

Clinical Relevance

Information on the nondomestic avian immune system will be useful in the development of vaccination and other preventive health programs for psittacine birds. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1162-1167)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research