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, and AST activity was slightly increased (330 U/L). Calcitriol administration was discontinued because of severe hyperphosphatemia. Because this condition was attributed primarily to underlying presumptive osteomyelitis associated with the oral lesion

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

concave with a mildly irregular margin, consistent with the surgical approach. There was no evidence of mass regrowth or regional osteomyelitis ( Figure 6 ) The patient survived for 6 months after surgery with an improved quality of life and without any

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 20 dogs with gunshot fractures were reviewed to determine the prevalence of preoperative contamination and postoperative osteomyelitis. Fractures were repaired primarily by application of a bone plate (n = 16) or external fixator (n = 2) in buttress fashion or application of interfragmentary screws and pins (n = 2). In 17 dogs, an autogenous bone graft was also used. Results of bacteriologic culture of swab specimens obtained intraoperatively for 15 of the 16 dogs that received antimicrobials preoperatively and for all 4 dogs that did not receive antimicrobials preoperatively were negative. Three dogs developed osteomyelitis at 6, 8, and 10 weeks following surgery; for all 3, results of bacteriologic culture of specimens obtained intraoperatively had been negative. Fracture healing was uncomplicated in the remaining dogs (mean follow-up time, 23 months; range, 2 to 58 months). Despite the potential for contamination associated with gunshot trauma, results indicated a low prevalence of preoperative fracture contamination and postoperative osteomyelitis. These results imply either a low contamination rate or treatable contamination of the perifracture area.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 12 calves ≤1 month old, with fracture of the femoral diaphysis, were reviewed. Ten calves were within 1 week of birth at the time of diagnosis. Open reduction was accomplished by use of a lateral approach. Retrograde intramedullary pinning was accomplished in all calves, using 2 (n = 4 calves) or 3 (n = 8 calves) pins. Cerclage wire was used to supplement fixation in 7 calves. A closed continuous suction drain was placed along the lateral aspect of the femur in every calf.

Postsurgical complications included seroma formation over the middle gluteal musculature (n = 5 calves), pin migration (n = 6 calves), and osteomyelitis (n = 1 calf). Pin migration was observed in 4 calves that had been treated with nonthreaded trochar point pins.

Fractures in 10 of 12 calves (83%) were considered to have healed satisfactorily. One calf was euthanatized because of septic osteomyelitis of the femur. One calf was euthanatized because of persistent lameness and pin migration. Pins were removed in 8 of 12 calves (67%) between the 13th and 90th postoperative days. Results of this study indicate that application of intramedullary pins may be a useful solution for management of femoral diaphyseal fracture in young calves.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To identify common clinical and diagnostic features of calves with aortic or iliac artery thrombosis that might aid in antemortem diagnosis of this condition.

Design

retrospective case series.

Animals

9 calves ≤ 6 months old in which aortic or iliac artery thrombosis was confirmed at necropsy.

Results

All calves had an acute onset of paresis or flaccid paralysis of 1 or both hind limbs. Affected limbs were hypothermic and had diminished spinal reflexes and diminished pulse pressures. Diagnosis was definitively established in 2 calves by use of angiography. All 9 calves died or were euthanatized.

Clinical Implications

This condition is rare and could be mistaken for more common diseases of young cattle, such as traumatic injury of the axial or appendicular skeleton, vertebral osteomyelitis, nutritional muscular dystrophy associated with vitamin E or selenium deficiency, injury to the sciatic or femoral nerves, or clostridial myositis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:130–136)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Between Jan 1, 1984 and Aug 1, 1990, 27 horses were admitted to the veterinary medical center for evaluation of fistulous withers. Nine (37.5%) of 24 horses tested for antibody to Brucella abortus were seropositive. Horses that tested seropositive were significantly (P = 0.046) more likely to have been pastured with cattle that were seropositive for B abortus, and were significantly (P = 0.010) more likely to have had radiographic evidence of vertebral osteomyelitis than were horses that tested seronegative. Five horses that were seropositive for B abortus were administered strain 19 brucella vaccine sc (n = 1) or iv (n = 4). The horse treated by sc injection of vaccine improved during hospitalization, but was lost to follow-up evaluation. Three (75%) of 4 horses treated by iv injection died, but 1 horse recovered within 4 weeks of treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A longitudinal study was undertaken in a swine herd with an ever-present problem of foot abscess in suckling pigs reared on a woven-wire floor. Of 3,322 4-day-old pigs, 199 (6%) developed abscess lesions involving claws and accessory digits before weaning. Lesions were first detected in 4-day-old pigs; median and mean ages at onset were 10 and 11.3 days, respectively. At first detection, most pigs had only a single claw affected, but 39 pigs had at least 2 claws with abscesses. Hind limbs had more affected claws (140) than forelimbs (96). In the hind limbs, medial claws were most likely to have lesions, whereas the reverse was true for the forelimbs. Gross and microscopic examinations of affected claws indicated necrotic pododermatitis, with severe osteomyelitis, arthritis, and tenosynovitis. Bacteria isolated from foot abscess lesions included Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus spp, β-hemolytic Streptococcus spp, Actinobacillus spp, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides spp, and Peptostreptococcus spp.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

From 1973 through 1988, 518 external and internal abscesses were diagnosed in a large commercial goat herd. Of the 518 abscesses, 238 were primary and 280 were secondary abscesses in the same or other anatomic locations. During this period, the herd varied in size from 94 goats in 1973 to 431 goats in 1988. Abscesses in the jaw area were detected in 141 goats, 4 of which developed osteomyelitis of the mandible. Sternal abscesses were detected in 72 goats, with 2 also having osteomyelitis of the sternum diagnosed at necropsy. Most of the abscesses were in the jaw, sternal, facial, and cervical areas. Lung abscesses were diagnosed at necropsy in 20 goats that most recently had 1 or more superficial abscesses. Abscess incidence was 27.6% (112 of 406) in wethers and 22.9% (154 of 687) in does. Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated most frequently by bacteriologic culture of abscess specimens and about 3 times as often as was Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis or Staphylococcus sp, usually coagulase-positive S aureus. Bacteriologic culture of blood samples, taken during abscess episodes, yielded A pyogenes (n = 3) or C pseudotuberculosis (n = 1) in 3 goats. Results of antibiotic treatment of abscesses were disappointing, with little evidence of altering the course of the disease or sterilizing the abscess, despite the fact that the bacteria were susceptible in vitro to the antibiotics used. Excision of intact abscesses was the preferred treatment for abscesses of the jaw and facial areas. Isolation of infected goats, decrease in crowding, and careful selection of herd additions by breeding or through purchase from farms with a low incidence of abscesses in their herds were useful in lowering the disease rate in the herd.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

osteomyelitis (eg, bacterial or fungal) and, less likely because of the young age of the cat, primary or metastatic bone tumors. Figure 2 Same images as in Figure 1 . A focal expansile lesion with permeative lysis (arrowheads) is in the distal metaphysis

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Medical records and radiographs were reviewed from 20 foals with caudal femoral condylar lesions. Osseous lesions were classified radiographically into 3 categories. Type-I lesions were characterized by a discrete area of radiolucency within the subchondral bone of the caudal aspect of a femoral condyle and were associated with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Type-II lesions had localized, osseous irregularities involving < 50% of the femoral condyle. Type-III lesions had widespread irregularities involving a large area of the condyle, and in 5 foals with type-III lesions, there was a thin osseous fragment displaced from the condyle and free in the femorotibial joint pouch.

Foals with type-I and -III lesions were severely lame and often required assistance to stand. Foals with type-II lesions were not as lame, but lameness was evident at the trot and was exacerbated by flexion of the affected stifle. Cytologic evaluation of the synovial fluid from foals with type-I lesions was compatible with septic arthritis, whereas synovial fluid from foals with type-II and -III lesions was not septic.

Surgical exploration and debridement were performed in 4 foals. Two foals with type-II lesions are currently performing athletically. The remaining 2 foals, in which surgery was performed, had type-III lesions; both of those foals were euthanatized at surgery because of the severity of the lesions. Follow-up information was available in 5 foals that did not have surgery. Two foals with type-I lesions and 1 foal with a type-III lesion were sound 1 year after diagnosis. One foal with a type-II lesion had residual lameness that prevented performance, and 1 foal with a type-III lesion was salvaged for breeding.

Eleven foals were euthanatized and available for postmortem examination. Gross examination of the joints in foals with type-I lesions revealed a subchondral bone defect with intact articular cartilage in 3 of 4 foals examined. In 1 foal with a type-II lesion, a gross examination was performed, which revealed a focal indentation of the articular cartilage and on cross section had a retained cartilaginous core. Postmortem examination of 4 foals with type-III lesions revealed a large, denuded area with a shell-like cartilage fragment free within the joint. Two additional foals within this same group had marked irregularity of the articular cartilage with deep reticulation in the articular surface. In 2 of 3 foals examined with type-I lesions, histologic examination revealed suppurative osteomyelitis. The third foal in this group had changes compatible with focal ischemia. Two of 3 foals examined with type-III lesions had ischemic changes.

Type-I lesions represent focal epiphyseal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. The cause of type-II and -III lesions is speculative, but there appeared to be a disruption or delay in endochondral ossification. These lesions may be caused by osteochondrosis or may result from some vascular insult that is not currently well-defined.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association